Dietary intake during early pregnancy among Canadian women. Jennifer Fowler's MSc thesis under supervision of Drs. Evers, Randall-Simpson, and Campbell
Main findings: This study identified that the majority of women who participated in this study met the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (recommended by an established panel of Canadian and American scientists), while only 20% of women followed Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating for all four food groups.
Summary: The purpose of this study was to examine the eating habits of pregnant women to determine if nutritional recommendations are being met. The study revealed that 80% of the women in this study met the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range. The factors that were associated with achieving this range were higher education, abstinence from alcohol, and caffeine intake less than 300mg/day. Approximately 20% of women followed the Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating for all four food groups. Having more than one child, and experiencing morning sickness during pregnancy made women more likely to meet the food guide recommendations. The proportion of women meeting recommendations for each food group was 79.5% for milk, 75.5% for fruits and vegetables, 64.5% for meat and 26.7% for grain products. The average number of servings per day for each of the food groups met the recommended amount for all food groups except grain products. This study also found that pregnant women may not be getting get enough energy to support the increased needs during pregnancy, though under-reporting of energy intake is a possibility in studies that involve self reporting of eating habits.
Determinants of diet quality in pregnancy: does geography play a role?: Danielle Nash's MSc thesis under supervision of Drs. Campbell, Gilliland, Evers, and Wilk
Main findings: Results suggest that pregnant women who were born in Canada, unmarried, had no previous children, were less wealthy, less physically active, smokers and more anxious were more likely to have lower diet quality.
Summary: The purpose of this study was to identify the individual and community factors that affect diet quality during pregnancy. Overall, the study found that pregnant women who were born in Canada, unmarried, had no previous children, were less wealthy, less physically active, smokers and more anxious were more likely to have lower diet quality. The number of fast food restaurants in relation to participants’ homes did not appear to be a major contributor to diet quality in pregnancy. Diet quality of recent immigrants was on average better than Canadian born women. Women categorized into the “recent immigrant” category consisted of a group of women who had immigrated to Canada from all over the world.