Four full years (i.e., twelve graduate terms, full-time) after the M.A. will normally be required. At the discretion of the Department, and subject to the approval of the School of Graduate and Postdoctoral Studies, a part of this period may be spent in research and study elsewhere. Advance application, supplying academic justification, should be made to the Chair of Graduate Studies if a student is proposing to take periods of absence exceeding four weeks in any term.