General Resources

Internet Resources for Higher Education Outcomes Assessment

Multiple Choice and Short Answer Questions

Assessment: Designing Effective Multiple-choice and Short Answer Questions (Manual)
Constructing Written Test Questions for the Basic and Clinical Sciences, 3rd Edition
Test Blueprint (Template)
Test Blueprint (Example)
Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, 1956)
Writing Effective Multiple Choice Exams by Dr. Mike Atkinson (Reflections Newsletter Excerpt)

PowerPoint Presentations on Assessment

Writing Multiple-Choice Questions: Assessment Series 2014 (Dr. Mike Atkinson)
How Assessment Works (Dr. Debra Dawson)
Creating Valid and Reliable Classroom Tests (Wollack, Siegler, Kang, Wells)
Short Answer and Short Essay (Dr. Debra Dawson)


Bannister, S. (2002). Developing Objectives and Relating them to Assessment. University of North Carolina-Charlotte Website. Carneson, J., Delpierre, G., and Masters, K. (1996). Designing and Managing Multiple Choice Questions. University of Cape Town Website.
Jacobs, L. (2004). How to Write Better Tests: A Handbook for Improving Test Construction Skills. Indiana University Website.


Banks, S.R. (2005). Classroom Assessment: Issues and practices. Boston : Pearson/A and B.
Gronlund, N.E. (2006). Assessment of Student Achievement. Boston: Pearson.
Haladyna, T.M. (2004). Developing and validating multiple-choice test items , 3 rd Ed. Mahwah, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Hanna, G.S. and Dettmer, P.A. (2004). Assessment for Effective Teaching Using Context-Adaptive Planning, Pearson, Toronto.
Marzano, R.J., (2001). Designing a New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Corwin Press, Inc., California.
Osterlind, S.J. (1998). Constructing Test Items: Multiple-Choice, Constructed-Response, Performance, and Other Formats, Second Edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.