Stages in group development

Tuckman (1965) developed a model characterizing the five stages usually experienced by groups as they accomplish tasks. Maintenance tasks must also be performed to eliminate potential obstacles impeding task attainment. Group leaders are typically responsible for these maintenance tasks. Groups will vary individually regarding their emphasis on tasks and relationships during development. Stages are not necessarily followed in a fixed order.

STAGE TASK RELATIONSHIP
FORMING Orient toward the task and its definition. Varying attitudes of dependence or independence toward authority figures (i.e., group leaders). Each participant questions his own role and the role of other participants in the group.
STORMING Expression of emotion or reaction toward the task;
Task specification
Each participant tries to find their own place in the
group and to define their own role. There may be conflicts about power and about the closeness of member relationships.
NORMING Free exchange of ideas and opinions on the task. Each participant progressively takes their own role; group functioning rules are defined and followed; group cohesiveness occurs.
PERFORMING The group is in full activity towards attaining the task; solutions are found and proposed. All group members know the functioning roles of the other members and accept them; each member’s contribution is accepted and valued.
DISSOLVING Completion of the task; group evaluation is done.
Following task attainment, the group can dissolve.
The group assessed each member’s participation in the activities as well as the personal interrelationships that occurred.