CONFEDERATION VOICES:
Seven Canadian Poets

By JOHN COLDWELL ADAMS



NOTES ON THE CHAPTERS





ABBREVIATIONS: 
CLSCGDR
The Collected Letters of Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, ed.Laurel Boone (Fredericton: Goose Lane, 1989).
CYC
Carl Y. Connor, Archibald  Lampman (Ottawa: Borealis, 1977, reprint of 1929 edition).
DEA
Dear Bill: The Correspondence of William Arthur Deacon, ed. John Lennox and Michele Lacombe (University of Toronto Press, 1988).
DP
Desmond Pacey, Creative Writing in Canada (Toronto: Ryerson, 1952, revised 1961). Unless otherwise noted, quotations are from 1952 edition.
EKB
E. K. Brown, On Canadian Poetry (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1973, reprint of 1943 edition).
EMP
E. M. Pomeroy, Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson, 1943).
FGSP
Frederick George Scott Papers, McCord Museum, Montreal.
JEC
Joseph Edmund Collins, The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald (Toronto: Rose, 1883).
LBC
Letters of Bliss Carman, ed H. Pearson Gundy (Kingston and Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1981).
KLI
Carl F. Klinck, Wilfred Campbell (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1977, reprint of 1942 edition).
LP
Lorne Pierce Collection, Queen’s University Archives, Kingston, Ontario.
MIL
Muriel Miller, Quest and Revolt (St. John’s: Jesperson, 1985).
PATC
The Poet and the Critic, ed. Robert L. McDougall (Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1983).
PEP
Pelham Edgar Papers, Victoria College, University of Toronto.
TCP
Desmond Pacey, Ten Canadian Poets (Toronto: Ryerson, 1958).  

 

I - CHILDREN OF THE NEW DOMINION

1
EMP, 10.  [back]
2
Ibid. [back]
3
Charles G.D. Roberts, “Bliss Carman,”  Dalhousie Review, Vol. 9, January 1930, 414. [back]
4
Carman to James Carleton Young, 20 October 1910, LBC. [back]
5
Ottawa Daily Citizen, 5 July 1867. [back]
6
Archibald Lampman, “The Mermaid Inn,” The Globe, Toronto, 4 February 1893. [back]
7
Brockington, Leonard W., Saturday Night, 1 August 1942, p. 25. [back]
8
Montreal Gazette, 28 June 1867. The Gazette was quoting a comment from the Kingston News with which it agreed
emphatically. [back]
9
Frederick George Scott, The Great War as I Saw It (Toronto: F. D. Goodchild. 1922), 189. [back]
10
The Expositor, Brantford, 5 July 1867. [back]
11
Ibid., 10 July 1867. [back]
12
Ibid. [back]
13
Pauline Johnson, “Canadian Born,” Flint and Feather (Toronto: Musson, 17th edition, 1943), 81. [back]
14
JDL, 224. [back]
15
A.J.M. Smith, “Introduction,” The Book of Canadian Poetry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1943), 22. [back]

 

II - SIR CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS

1
Taken from an essay by Lampman, unpublished during his lifetime. Duncan Campbell Scott was the first to draw attention to it by quoting a paragraph in his “Introduction” to Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925), 8. [back]
2
From 1881 onward, Scribner’s Monthly Magazine was continued by The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine, which was still publishing Roberts’ poems as late as 1910. [back]
3
Desmond Pacey and Graham Adams, editors, The Collected Poems of Sir Charles G. D. Roberts (Wolfville, N.S.: Wombat Press, 1985), 366. In Orion and Other Poems, the title “Ode to Drowsiness” is changed to “Ode to Drowsihood.”  [back]
4
Rose-Belford’s Canadian Magazine, November 1880, 552-553; Montreal Gazette, 9 October 1880.  [back]
5
Quoted from The Independent, JEC, 465.  [back]
6
From “Canadian Poetry in Its Relation to the Poetry of England and America,” an address given by Roberts to the Elson Club, Burwash Hall, Toronto, 18 March 1933. The original manuscript is in the Special Collections of the D.B. Weldon Library, University of Western Ontario. Printed with an Introduction by D.M.R. Bentley in Canadian Poetry, No. 3 (Fall/Winter 1978), 80-81. [back]
7
TCP, 45. [back]
8
Roberts to J. E. Wetherell, 14 December 1892, CLSCGDR, 161.  [back]
9
From typescript of Lorne Pierce’s interview with Roberts, 3 June 1927, Lorne Pierce Collection, Queen’s University Archives, Kingston, Ontario. Printed with an introduction by Terry Whalen in Canadian Poetry, No. 21, 1987, 75. [back]
10
Ibid. [back]
11
The word “bewray,” obsolete even in 1880, was retained by Roberts in his collected editions of 1901 and 1907. The
editors of The Collected Poems of Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (1985) changed it to “betray.” [back]
12
Letter to the author from Dorothy Roberts Leisner, 27 November 1977. [back]
13
Letter to the author from Lady Joan Roberts, 21 November
1986.
[back]
14
The note in The Collected Poems of Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (Wolfville: Wombat, 1985), 386, attributes publications to Andrew Straton that were the work of his brother Barry. [back]
15
Actually, there are 105 lines. Roberts departs from the couplet form once by making line 39 rhyme with lines 37 and 38. [back]
16
Charles G. D. Roberts, “Bliss Carman,” Dalhousie Review
(January 1930), 413. [back]
17
EMP, 37. [back]
18
JEC, 465. [back]
19
W. J. Keith, ed., Selected Poetry and Critical Prose: Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), 258. [back]
20
Interview with Julia Roberts, Sir Charles’ daughter-in-law, 21 January 1978. Her information came from her husband, Lloyd, Sir Charles’ second son. This confirmed the stories I had already been told  by Elsie Pomeroy. Admittedly, in both cases, the original source was probably Sir Charles himself, who also told Pomeroy that May was the subject of  “Without One Kiss”. [back]
21
Family lore related to the author by Roberts’ great-granddaughter, Hope Kuligowski, in a letter dated 21 November 1977. [back]
22
Roberts to Lampman, 23 September 1882, CLSCGDR, 28. [back]
23
See Note 1. [back]
24
Roberts to Lampman, 23 September 1882, CLSCGDR, 29. [back]
25
JEC, 465. [back]
26
W.J. Keith, op. cit. 258. [back]
27
Roberts to Carman, 11 January 1884, CLSCGDR, 38. [back]
28
Roberts to Carman, 28 February 1884, CLSCGDR, 39. [back]
29
Minutes of the Board of Governors, 9 February 1888, 202-203. King’s College Archives, Halifax, Nova Scotia. I was unaware of this entry until alerted by Henry Roper in “A ‘High Anglican Pagan’ and His Pupil,” Dalhousie Review, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Spring 1995), 55-56. [back]
30
The title appears simply as “Tantramar Revisited” (no definite article) in later editions of Roberts’ poems. [back]
31
W.J. Keith, op. cit., 274. [back]
32
Since “The Sower” was written  in 1884, it seems Pomeroy is in error when she states that Gilder made the presentation during a later visit (Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, 52). [back]
33
DP, 43. [back]
34
Roberts to Carman, 25 October 1884, CLSCGDR, 43. [back]
35
Nocturne,” slightly revised, was reprinted in The Vagrant of Time, 1927, as “On the Lagoon.” [back]
36
TCP, 49. [back]
37
D.M.R. Bentley, “The Poetics of Roberts’ Tantramar Space,” The Proceedings of the Sir Charles G.D. Roberts Symposium, Mount Allison University, edited by Carrie MacMillan (Halifax: Nimbus, 1984), 28. [back]
38
James Cappon, Charles G.D. Roberts and the Influence of His Times, reprint of Roberts and the Influences of His Time, 1905 (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1975), 23. [back]
39
W.J. Keith, “Charles G.D. Roberts and the Poetic Tradition,” The Proceedings of the Sir Charles G.D. Roberts Symposium, Mount Allison University, edited by Carrie MacMillan (Halifax: Nimbus, 1984), 61. [back]
40
Information supplied to the author by Elsie Pomeroy, 20 February 1960; also letter  from Pomeroy to Pierce, 15 March 1936, Lorne Pierce Collection, Queen’s University Archives. [back]
41
EMP, 112. [back]
42
Lorne Pierce’s 1927 interview with Roberts. See note #8. [back]
43
Northrup Frye, The Bush Garden (Toronto: Anansi, 1971), 46. [back]
44
Charles G.D. Roberts, “Shelley’s Adonais,” reprinted  in Selected Poetry and Critical Prose, edited by W.J. Keith  (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), 290. [back]
45
Roberts to Carman, 6 May 1894, CLSCGDR, 182. [back]
46
Lloyd Roberts, “Hell and High Heaven,” 74. Unpublished
manuscript, Lorne Pierce Collection. Queen’s University
Archives. When Lloyd changed the title of this autobiography from Dark Houses,” he also changed the family names and tried to disguise the work as a novel. [back]
47
Roberts to Athelstan, 6 May 1897, CLSCGDR, 232. [back]
48
Lloyd Roberts, The Book of Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1923), 22. [back]
49
Lloyd Roberts, “Hell and High Heaven,” 73. [back]
50
Ibid., 148. [back]
51
From the author’s conversations with Pomeroy in the 1960s. In the Roberts biography, p. 150, Pomeroy states that in the winter following Athelstan’s death, May spent several weeks with Roberts in New York, a visit that coincided with a brief visit from his father. The Reporter and Fredericton Advertiser recorded his father’s visit, but at no time  made any mention of a visit from May. Neither does Lloyd Roberts refer to any such visit in his autobiographical manuscript, “Hell and High Heaven.” [back]
52
D.M.R. Bentley, “Half Passion and Half Prayer: the New York Nocturnes,” The Sir Charles G.D. Roberts Symposium, edited by Glenn Clever (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1983), 58. [back]
53
EMP, 152. [back]
54
Lorne Pierce’s 1927 interview with Roberts,  75. See note #8. [back]
55
During the author’s discussions with Pomeroy in the 1960s, she claimed to be still pondering the identity of the New York lady. [back]
56
Roberts to Mary Fanton, 19 September 1904, CLSCGDR, 270. [back]
57
Elsie Pomeroy to Lorne Pierce, 15 March 1936, LP. [back]
58
Roberts to Mary Fanton, 27 December 1900, CLSCGDR, 260. Roberts is responding to this statement by Fanton. [back]
59
Roberts to Mary Fanton, 19 September 1904, CLSCGDR, 271. [back]
60
James Cappon calls it a “dainty little idyll” (Charles G.D. Roberts in the Makers of Canadian Literature series, Ryerson, 1925, p. 97); Desmond Pacey calls it one of “the best poems in the book” (Ten Canadian Poets, Ryerson, 1958, p. 53. W.J. Keith includes it among “some of the most successful poems of [Roberts’ 1897-1925] period” (Selected Poetry and Critical Prose, 1974, p. xxvii). [back]
61
Pierce’s 1927 interview with Roberts, op.cit, 75. [back]
62
Roberts to Susan Hayes Ward, 1 May 1899, CLSCGDR, 252. Although the extent of his debt is unknown, he confides that he is now “more than $1000 less in debt.” [back]
63
Ibid. [back]
64
Ibid. [back]
65
Lorne Pierce Diaries, LP. This statement by Roberts was recorded by Pierce on 4 June 1927. [back]
66
Some of the research was put to use in his Explorations and Discoveries (1903), which appeared as Volume XIV of a history of the nineteenth century, edited by Justin McCarthy, the Irish historian. [back]
67
Roberts to Carman, 13 August 1899, CLSCGDR, 255. [back]
68
Ibid. [back]
69
The Evening Telegram, New York, 27 February 1903. [back]
70
Lloyd Roberts, “Hell and High Heaven,” 185. [back]
71
Wilfrid Eggleston, Literary Friends (Ottawa: Borealis Press,
1980), 69. Letter to Eggleston from Lloyd Roberts, 30
January 1948. [back]
72
Author’s interview with Julia Roberts (Lloyd Roberts’ widow), 21 January 1978. Mrs. Roberts quoted her husband as saying that his grandfather’s “greatest worry was over what was to become of his eldest son’s family.” [back]
73
Private information supplied to the author by Elsie Pomeroy. [back]
74
The Sweet o’ the Year” was previously published in Today (March-August 1920) and in Literary Digest (June 1920). The title is borrowed from Autolycus’ song in Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale, Act IV, scene i:

            When daffodils begin to peer,
            With hey, the doxy over the dale,
       Why then comes in the sweet o’ the year:
            For the red  blood reigns in the winter’s pale.                                                                                             [back]
75
James Cappon, Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson, 1925), 121. [back]
76
TCP, 56. [back]
77
Private information supplied to the author by Elsie Pomeroy. The first draft of this poem, pre-dating Roberts’ meeting with Pomeroy by four years, appears in his notebook, University of New Brunswick. [back]
78
Lorne Pierce to Roberts, 6 May 1934, University of New
Brunswick Archives. Referring to Joan Montgomery as his
“protegé,” Roberts had asked Pierce if there might be an
opening for her at Ryerson Press. Although he could offer nothing at the moment, Pierce interviewed her and congratulated Roberts for having “the art of finding beauty and brains in one body.” [back]
79
Of the fourteen poems  in the collection, two had been published by the time Roberts was thirty. “Promise,” slightly revised in 1932, first appeared in the King’s College Record (Nov., 1885) and was published in In Divers Tones (1886). “Quebec, 1757” first appeared in The Canadians of Old (1890), Roberts’ translation of Philippe Aubert de Gaspé’s Les Anciens Canadiens. [back]
80
EKB, 53. [back]
81
Goldwin Smith, quoted in Our Sense of Identity, edited by
Malcolm Ross (Toronto: Ryerson, 1954), 23. [back]
82
Roberts to John Clarence Webster, 13 July 1935, CLSCGDR, 494. [back]
83
Selected Poems of Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson, 1936), vii-viii. [back]
84
Roberts to Pelham Edgar, 1 August 1940, CLSCGDR, 594. [back]
85
Roberts to Lorne Pierce, 4 September 1942, CLSCGDR, 629. [back]
86
Private information supplied to the author by Elsie Pomeroy. [back]
87
Copy of a letter from Pierce to Pomeroy, 3 May 1943,  LP. [back]
88
Authors’ interview with Julia Roberts (Lloyd’s widow) 1 April 1978. All the information about Roberts’ distress over hurting Elsie Pomeroy comes from this interview. [back]
89
In 1994, I discovered that Roberts’ monument in the Forest Hill Cemetery, Fredericton, had toppled over and was sinking into the ground. The cemetery board lacked funds for any restoration, but appeals  to Brad Woodside, the mayor of Fredericton, and Frank McKenna, the premier of New Brunswick, resulted in the monument being re-mounted on a secure foundation below the frost line. [back]
90
E.M. Pomeroy, “Sir Charles G.D. Roberts: Final Chapter,”
Canadian Author and Bookman, Vol. XX, No. 2, June 1944, 6. [back]
91
Information supplied to the author by Elsie Pomeroy. [back]
92
TCP 58. [back]
93
W.J. Keith, “Introduction,” Selected Poetry and Critical Prose: Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974, xvi. [back]
94
Reported in The Canadian Author and Bookman, Vol. XX, No. 2, June 1944, 7. Mrs. King was a Toronto poet who published The New Crusaders and Other Poems (1943). She was the  mother of Charmion King, the prominent Canadian actress. [back]
95
Roberts to Walter McRaye, 24 March 1940, CLSCGDR, 590. [back]

III - BLISS CARMAN

1
Charles G.D. Roberts, “Bliss Carman,” Dalhousie Review, Vol. 9, January 1930, 410. [back]
2
William Bliss Carman was the second of William Carman’s sons to be named William. The first, a son of William’s marriage to Ann Dean, was born 29 September 1832 and died sometime before 1859. [back]
3
Charles G.D. Roberts,  op. cit., 411. [back]
4
Ibid. [back]
5
Ibid., 412. [back]
6
MIL, 4. [back]
7
Carman to his mother, 8 April 1883, LBC, 5. [back]
8
MIL, 70. I have found no suport for Miller’s statement other than the fact that the letters seem to have disappeared. [back]
9
Roberts to Carman, 3 December 1883, CLSCGDR, 37. [back]
10
MIL., 30. Miller dismisses this comment as “wishful thinking” because Ganong himself was attracted to Julie. I am inclined to think that Ganong got it right. [back]
11
Carman to Maude Mosher, 2 August 1893, LBC, 58. [back]
12
Carman to his mother, 23 May 1884, LBC, 9. [back]
13
Northrup Frye, “Haunted by a Lack of Ghosts,” The Canadian Imagination, edited by David Staines (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1977), 32. [back]
14
Carman to Maude Mosher, 16 June 1888, LBC, 24. [back]
15
Carman to his mother, 3 August 1885, LBC, 12. [back]
16
Carman to Julia Plant Cutler, 12 May 1916, LBC, 237. [back]
17
Carman to Margaret Laurence, 18 November 1927, LBC, 353. [back]
18
Muriel Miller, in Bliss Carman: Quest & Revolt, p. 70, suggests that this poem refers to the end of his engagement to Julie Plant. It seem to me that all the evidence points to his mother as the subject. [back]
19
Carman to his sister, 17 April 1887, LBC, 15. [back]
20
Carman to his sister, 21 August 1887, LBC, 17. [back]
21
Carman to H.D.C. Lee, 29 September 1911. LBC, 190. 
Carman’s reply to queries from Lee, a Scottish teacher preparing a thesis on Carman’s poetry at the Université de Rennes, France.
[back]
22
Josiah Royce, The Religious Aspect of Philosophy (Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1965; first printed by Harper & Row, 1885), 476. [back]
23
Ibid., 482. [back]
24
Douglass Shand-Tucci, Boston Bohemia, 1881-1900 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1995), 15.  [back]
25
Charles G.D. Roberts, “More Reminiscences of Bliss Carman,” Dalhousie Review, Vol. 10, April 1930, 3. [back]
26
Muriel Miller states in Bliss Carman; Quest & Revolt, p. 45: “One day a dark-eyed senior   [Berenson] in one of [Carman’s] English courses singled him out and invited him to join a group in one of the lunch rooms that noon.” To date, I have been unable to locate any source for Miller’s account of Berenson’s overture. [back]
27
Ernest Samuels, Bernard Berenson: The Making of a
Connoisseur (Cambridge, Mass.: Belkap Press of Harvard
University Press, 1979), 22.
[back]
28
Ralph Adams Cram, My Life in Architecture (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1936), 14. [back]
29
Estelle Jussim, Slave to Beauty: The Eccentric Life and
Controversial Career of F. Holland Day  (Boston: David R.
Godine, 1981), 35.
[back]
30
Shand-Tucci, op. cit., 140. [back]
31
Cram, op.cit., 14. [back]
32
Carman to Irving Way, 24 June, 1915, LBC, 227. [back]
33
Alan Houston Macdonald, Richard Hovey; Man & Craftsman (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1957), 12. [back]
34
Ibid., 25. [back]
35
Ibid., 4. [back]
36
Ibid., 45. [back]
37
Laurel Boone, “Bliss Carman’s Pageants, Masques and Essays and the Genesis of Modern Dance,” Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal, edited with an introduction by Gerald Lynch (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990), 166. [back]
38
Lloyd Roberts, The Book of Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1923), 37. [back]
39
EMP, 92. [back]
40
Henry C. Bowen to Carman, 28 April 1892. Bliss Carman Papers, Smith College Library, Northampton, Massachusetts. [back]
41
See, for example, Roger Austen, Gentle Pagan: The Double Life of Charles Warren Stoddard, 138; and Douglass Shand-Tucci, Boston Bohemia, 1881-1900, 137-8. [back]
42
Carman to Muriel Ganong, 14 February 1895, LBC, 88. [back]
43
Lorne Pierce’s 1927 Interview with Charles G.D. Roberts,” edited and introduced by Terry Whalen, Canadian Poetry, No. 21 Fall/Winter 1987, 73. [back]
44
Kennerley on Carman,” edited and introduced by H. Pearson Gundy, Canadian Poetry, No. 14, Spring/Summer 1984, 72. [back]
45
Carman to Louise Imogen Guiney, 18 March 1890, LBC, 36. [back]
46
Ibid., 48. [back]
47
Carman to Muriel Ganong, 14 February 1895. LBC, 88. [back]
48
Carman to Tom Meteyard, 28 July 1912, LBC, 196. [back]
49
According to information given to me by Elsie Pomeroy, Hovey made this comment to Charles G.D. Roberts after learning that Mrs. Russell had obtained her divorce. [back]
50
Carman to Irving Way, 26 September 1911, LBC, 188. [back]
51
Kennerley on Carman,” op. cit. [back]
52
Ibid., 73. [back]
53
Lorne Pierce, “Introduction,” The Selected Poems of Bliss
Carman (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1954), 28.
[back]
54
Kennerley on Carman,” op.cit., 73.  See #44 above. [back]
55
EMP, 228. [back]
56
Harriet Spofford Hovey to Carman, 6 December 1893, LP. [back]
57
MIL, 166. Early in 1897, Carman  was visiting the Hoveys in Washington while the Kings were  staying at a local hotel. For some unknown reason, “Mother” Hovey and Mrs. King had a disagreement. Since financial difficulties forced Mrs. Hovey to work in a government office Miller surmises that she objected to the impropriety of Mrs. King visiting Carman while she was not at home. However, since the ailing General Hovey was usually present, Mrs. Hovey’s displeasure may have had more to do with another woman taking over the coveted role of mothering Carman. In her loving  way, Mrs. Hovey was as possessive as Mary Perry King. [back]
58
Carman to Kate Eastman, 26 September 1927, LBC, 348. [back]
59
Lorne Pierce, op. cit., 28. [back]
60
TCP, 79. [back]
61
Roberts appears to have had this view as did Desmond Pacey and Donald Stephens among others. [back]
62
James Cappon, Bliss Carman and the Literary Currents and Influences of His Time (New York & Montreal: Louis Carrier & Alan Isles, 1930), 18. [back]
63
TCP, 102. [back]
64
Thomas Vincent has traced the evolution of “Low Tide on Grand Pré” in “Bliss Carman’s  ‘Low Tides’,” Canadian Literature, No. 129, Summer 1991. The existence of “Low Tide on Avon” seems to disprove Muriel Miller’s claim that the poem “wrote itself into his mind one Sunday in early June while he and Roberts were walking along the barren Grand Pré flats” (Bliss Carman: Quest & Revolt, 41). [back]
65
Alan Houston Macdonald, op. cit., 143. [back]
66
Ibid. To date, it was last reprinted by Johnson Reprint
Corporation, New York, 1969.
[back]
67
In Bliss Carman: Quest & Revolt, p. 52, Muriel Miller states that Carman and Hovey, spotting Stevenson on the porch of the sanitarium, stopped to speak to him. However, in a private conversation with me in 1984, she acknowledged that her account was merely a conjecture of what might have happened. Frank McLynn’s 1993 biography of Stevenson (pp. 281-82) makes a chance meeting with R.L.S. in Saranac seem unlikely, especially on the porch of the sanitarium. [back]
68
Elsie Pomeroy, who obviously heard the story from Roberts,
recounts it in Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, p. 94.
[back]
69
Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray (London: Oxford
University Press, 1974; novel first published in 1891), 173.
[back]
70
Terry Whalen, “Bliss Carman,” in Canadian Writers and Their Works, Poetry Series, Volume Two, edited by Lecker, David and Quigley (Downsview, Ontario: ECW Press, 1983), 119. [back]
71
Charles G.D. Roberts, op. cit., 9. [back]
72
D.G. Jones, Butterfly on Rock (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1970), 95. [back]
73
James Cappon, op. cit., 140. [back]
74
D.M.R. Bentley, “Threefold in Wonder: Bliss Carman’s Sappho: One Hundred Lyrics,” Canadian Poetry, Vol. 17, Fall/Winter 1985. Also, Sappho is called an “extraordinary achievement” in Louis K. Mackenzie’s “Grues and Gaunts: Carman’s Gothic,” Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal , ed. Gerald Lynch (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990), 131. [back]
75
James Cappon, op.cit., 250. [back]
76
Terry Whalen, op.cit., 96. [back]
77
Carman to Peter McArthur, 18 October 1920, LBC, 271. [back]
78
Carman to Irving Way, 1 March 1921, LBC, 274. [back]
79
Lyn Harrington, Syllables of Recorded Time (Toronto: Simon & Pierre, 1981), 68. [back]
80
Donald Stephens, Bliss Carman (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1966), 33. [back]
81
Padriac Colum, “Prefatory Note” in Sanctuary by Bliss Carman (Boston: Dodd, Mead, 1929), vi.82. James Cappon, op. cit., 253. [back]
82
James Cappon, op. cit., 253. [back]

 

IV - ARCHIBALD LAMPMAN

1
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Introduction,” Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925), 22. [back]
2
Arthur Stringer, quoted by Ralph Gustafson in “Life and Nature: Some Re-appraisals of Lampman,” The Lampman Symposium, edited by Lorraine McMullen, (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1976), 2. [back]
3
Duncan Campbell Scott provides extensive and generally accurate details of Lampman’s ancestry in his “Introduction” to Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925). However, the chart on page 19 misses one generation of the Gesner family. This omission may have mislead  Carl Y. Connor to identify Archibald Lampman’s great-great-great-grandfather, Johannes Hendrick Gesner, as his great-great-grandfather (Archibald Lampman, Canadian Poet of Nature, Montreal: Louis Carrier, 1929; reprinted Ottawa: Borealis Press, 1977, 14). It should be noted that D.C. Scott was relying upon Ernest Voorhis’ “The Ancestry of Archibald Lampman,” Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 3rd Series, Vol. 15. On 29 October 2001, a certain Tom Lampman posted the following message in the Lampman Family Forum on the Internet: “The Voorhis records are somewhat suspect and, in my opinion, not well documented.” [back]
4
Duncan Campbell Scott, op. cit., 20. [back]
5
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Memoir,” The Poems of Archibald Lampman (Toronto: Morang,  1900), xiv. [back]
6
E.R. Early, “Archibald Lampman,” Canadian Writers and Their Works, Poetry Series, Volume 2 (Downsview, Ontario: ECW Press, 1983), 151. [back]
7
Sage, G.B., “Archibald Lampman as I Knew Him at Trinity
University,” Canadian Notes and Queries, No. 18, December 1976. “Prefatory Note” by D.M.R. Bentley. Taken from the  “Invocation,” delivered by Sage at the dedication of the Lampman Memorial Cairn, Morpeth, 13 September 1930. Original in Weldon Library, University of Western Ontario. [back]
8
Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, Second Edition (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of Toronto Press, 1982), 653. [back]
9
CYC, 25. Connor appears to have obtained some of his
information from Lampman’s sisters, but made some incorrect assumptions.
[back]
10
Ibid., 27. [back]
11
Ibid., 28. [back]
12
Archibald Lampman, “Fishing in Rice Lake,” Forest and Stream, 10 August 1882, 28-29. Reprinted in The Essays and Reviews of Archibald Lampman, edited by D.M.R. Bentley (London, Canada: Canadian Poetry Press, 1996), 34-36. The original is signed simply “A.L”. [back]
13
Richard B. Howard, Upper Canada College, 1829-1979
(Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1979), 64.
[back]
14
Duncan Campbell Scott, op. cit. [back]
15
Norma Martin, Catherine Milne, Donna S. McGillis, Gore’s
Landing and the Rice Lake Plains (Bewdley, Ontario: Clay
Publishing Company, 1986), 91.
[back]
16
Betty Lee, Marie Dressler:The Unlikeliest Star (Lexington:
University of Kentucky Press, 1977), 5.
[back]
17
Journal of the Incorported Synod of the Church of England in the Diocese of Toronto, 35. Carl Y.Connor, in his biography of Lampman, p. 30, states that Mr. Lampman “came as curate” to St. Peter’s, p.35. His information may have been supplied by Lampman’s sisters. [back]
18
Duncan Campbell Scott, op.cit,, xviii. [back]
19
Duncan Campbell Scott, op. cit., viv. [back]
20
G.B. Sage, op. cit., 7. [back]
21
Ibid., 8. [back]
22
Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose, edited by Barry Davis (Ottawa: Tecumseh Press, 1975), 11. “The Revolt of Islam,” reprinted from Rouge et Noir. [back]
23
Ibid., 12. [back]
24
Ibid., 13. [back]
25
Twenty-Five Fugitive Poems by Archibald Lampman,” edited and introduced by L.R. Early, Canadian Poetry, No. 12, Spring/Summer 1983, 47. [back]
26
G.B. Sage, op. cit., 8. [back]
27
CYC, 41. Misspelling Liddell’s name, Connor quotes this couplet without stating his source. It was Liddell’s daughter, Alice, for whom Lewis Carroll wrote Alice in Wonderland. [back]
28
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Introduction,”  Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925), 8. [back]
29
Ibid. [back]
30
In his biography of Lampman, p. 53, Connor incorrectly assumes that, while Lampman was still at Trinity, Roberts was part of  a group of  his friends that included Collins and John A. Ritchie. In fact, Lampman had been working in Ottawa for more than seven months before Roberts’ brief trip to Toronto in the summer of 1883, prior to moving there. It seems likely that the first meeting occurred after 21 September 1883. [back]
31
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Memoir,” The Poems of Archibald Lampman, third edition (Toronto: Morang & Co., 1905), xvi. [back]
32
Lampman to John Ritchie, undated. Quoted by Carl Y. Connor  in Archibald Lampman, 62. [back]
33
Ibid., 60. [back]
34
Duncan Campbell Scott, op. cit. [back]
35
Lampman to Ritchie, undated. Quoted by Connor in Archibald Lampman, 61. [back]
36
Ibid., 67. [back]
37
Ibid., 66. [back]
38
Ibid., 72. [back]
39
Archibald Lampman, “The Life and Times of Sir John A.
Macdonald,” Canadian Illustrated News, 30 June 1883, 403.
[back]
40
Lampman to Ritchie, undated. Quoted by Carl Y. Connor in Archibald Lampman, 73. Connor assumes that Campbell, not Collins, would be the fourth member of the party. [back]
41
Ibid., 74. [back]
42
Ibid., 76. [back]
43
Joseph Edmund Collins, Canada under the Administration of Lord Lorne (Toronto: Rose, 1884), 366. [back]
44
Joseph Edmund Collins, “Dedication,” Annette, the Métis Spy (Toronto: Rose, 1886). [back]
45
Archibald Lampman, in the “Mermaid Inn” column, The Globe (Toronto), 19 March 1892. [back]
46
“Copy of Letter by Duncan Campbell Scott to Ralph Gustafson,” The Fiddlehead, 42 (Summer 1959), 13. [back]
47
Lampman to Maud Playter, 11 August 1885. Lampman Papers, PAC. Letters copied and presented to the Public Archives of Canada by Simon Fraser University. [back]
48
Archibald Lampman, “Mermaid Inn” column, The Globe, Toronto, 3 December 1892. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn, Introduction by Barry Davies (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University  of Toronto Press, 1979, 204. [back]
49
Lampman to Maud Playter, 11 January 1887. See #47 above. [back]
50
Ottawa Journal, 5 September 1887, 3. [back]
51
Lampman to Maud Playter, 8 August 1885. See #47 above. [back]
52
Robert L. McDougall, ed., The Poet and the Critic (Ottawa:
Carleton University Press, 1983), 50. Scott to E.K. Brown, 18 January 1943.
[back]
53
Ibid. [back]
54
TCP, 130-132. [back]
55
Archibald Lampman, “Mermaid Inn” column, The Globe, Toronto, 17 September 1892. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn (see #48 above), 152. [back]
56
Sinclair Lewis, quoted in The Man from Main Street: A Sinclair Lewis Reader, edited by Maule and Cane (New York: Random House, 1952), 15. [back]
57
William Dean Howells, “Editor’s Study,” Harper’s New Monthly Magazine, 78 (April 1889), 822-23. [back]
58
Maud to Lampman, undated. See #47 above. [back]
59
“Copy of Letter by Duncan Campbell Scott to Ralph Gustafson,” The Fiddlehead, 41 (Summer 1959), 14. [back]
60
Maud to Lampman, undated. See #47 above. [back]
61
[E.W. Thomson], The Globe (Toronto), 12 March 1890, 4. [back]
62
Helen Lynn, editor, An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980), 2. [back]
63
Archibald Lampman, “At the Mermaid Inn,” The Globe (Toronto), 19 March 1892. [back]
64
Helen Lynn, op. cit., 149. Lampman to Thomson, 29 August 1895. [back]
65
Ibid., 40. Lampman to Thomson, 20 May 1892. [back]
66
Ibid., 73-74. Lampman to Thomson, 10 April 1893. [back]
67
Ibid., 123. Lampman to Thomson, 19 August 1894. [back]
68
Ibid., 93. Lampman to Thomson, 16 August 1893. [back]
69
The Globe, Toronto, 18 June 1892. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn, introduction by Barry Davis (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1979), 94. [back]
70
The Globe, Toronto, 17 September 1892, 19 November 1892, 21 January 1893. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn (UTP, 1979), pp. 152, 194, 240. [back]
71
The Globe, Toronto, 18 January 1893. Reprinted in At the
Mermaid Inn (UTP, 1979), 262.
[back]
72
The Globe, Toronto, 1 October 1892. Reprinted in At the
Mermaid Inn
(UTP, 1979), 160.
[back]
73
McDougall, op.cit., 56. [back]
74
L.R. Early, “Archibald Lampman,” Canadian Writers and Their Works, Poetry Series, Volume Two (Downsview, Ontario: ECW Press, 1983), 136. Whitridge’s disclosures appear in her Lampman’s Kate (Ottawa: Borealis, 1975) and her “Love and Hate in Lampman’s Poetry,” The Lampman Symposium (Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1976). [back]
75
Duncan Campbell Scott, op. cit. [back]
76
Helen  Lynn, op. cit., 186. Lampman to Thomson, 5 July 1897. [back]
77
Ibid., 191. Lampman to Thomson, 1 October 1897. [back]
78
Ibid., 204. Lampman to Thomson, 15 April 1898. [back]
79
Arthur S. Bourinot, ed., Some Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott, Archibald Lampman & Others, 5. Lampman to Duncan Campbell Scott, 21 August 1898. [back]
80
Lampman to Maud, 30 September 1898. See #48 above. [back]
81
Wilfrid Eggleston, Literary Friends (Ottawa: Borealis, 1890), 21. [back]
82
Ottawa Journal, 10 February 1899, 3. [back]
83
Desmond Pacey, op. cit., 139. [back]
84
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Introduction,” Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925), 4. [back]
85
Raymond Souster, “Archibald Lampman: A Dept Repaid,”
Comfort of the Fields (Sutton West: Paget Press, 1979), xviii.
[back]

 

V- DUNCAN CAMPBELL SCOTT

1
Leonard W. Brockington, “Duncan Campbell Scott’s Eightieth Birthday,” Saturday Night, 1 August 1942, 25. [back]
2
Obituary notice in the Minutes of the Montreal Methodist
Conference, 1892. Similar tributes appeared during William Scott’s lifetime: The Daily Recorder, “First General Conference of the United Wesleyan Methodist Conference of Canada,” August 30, 1874; The Brockville Recorder, March 1, 1877. [back]
3
International Genealogical Index. Information taken from the records of St. Botolph’s Church, Lincoln. Although the date is given for a christening, not a birth, there is no other William Scott listed as being born or christened in Lincoln around that time. It seems safe, therefore, to conclude that the the reference is to D.C. Scott’s father. The I.G.I. is also the source for the information about William Scott’s marriage to Maria Sleight. [back]
4
D.C. Scott to Pelham Edgar, February 1905, PEP. [back]
5
Minutes of the Montreal Methodist Conference. [back]
6
Ibid. [back]
7
E.K. Brown, “Memoir,” Selected Poems of Duncan Campbell Scott (Toronto: Ryerson, 1951), ix. [back]
8
Georgiana’s age is given as seventeen, birthplace England,  in the 1851 census for Melbourne, Quebec, her father’s circuit at the time.  If that age is correct, Georgiana would have been born in the early months of 1835 at the very latest. I have been unable to find any other dates relating to her. [back]
9
Scott to E.K. Brown, 29 September 1946, PATC, 176. [back]
10
Leonard W. Brockington, op. cit. Scott’s reciprocal regard is evident in his sonnet “To My Friend - Leonard  W. Brockington” in The Circle of Affection (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1947).  [back]
11
Christian Guardian, 31 August 1892, 554. [back]
12
Madge Macbeth, Over My Shoulder (Toronto: Ryerson, 1943), 147. Macbeth mistakenly claims that this incident occurred when Duncan Scott was “a tiny child in Stanstead.” He was in his teens before the move to Stanstead. [back]
13
Scott to Pelham Edgar, February 1905, PEP. [back]
14
Duncan Campbell Scott, Untitled Novel, ca.1905 (Moonbeam, Ontario: Penumbra Press. 1979). The three quotations in order are from pages 26, 14 and 25. When Scott lived in the town, it was known as Smith’s Falls; in 1939, Canada Post dropped the apostrophe, but it took an Act of the Ontario Legislature on 11 April 1968 to change the spelling officially to Smiths Falls. [back]
15
Joan MacDonald, The Stanstead College Story (Stanstead: Board of Trustees, 1977), 7. [back]
16
E.K. Brown, op. cit., xiii. [back]
17
Encyclopedia of Music in Canada, Second Edition (Toronto, Buffalo, London: University of  Toronto Press, 1982), 263. [back]
18
Scott to Carman, 20 June 1890. Bliss Carman Papers, Smith College Library, Northampton, Massachusetts. See “Letters to Carman, 1890-92, from Campbell, Lampman and Scott,” edited with an introduction by Tracey Ware, Canadian Poetry, No. 27, Fall/Winter, 1990. [back]
19
Elsie M. Pomeroy, William Saunders and His Five Sons(Toronto: Ryerson, 1956), 63. [back]
20
Scott to Carman, 22 October 1891. See note 18. [back]
21
The Globe, Toronto, 18 January 1892. Of the writers present, the following are less well known today than Scott, Campbell and Johnson:
Agnes Maule Machar (1837-1927) sometimes wrote under the pen name “Fidelis;” by 1892, had published several novels and Lays of the North (poetry); later work includes The Story of Old Kingston (1908); she also contributed articles on social issues to Canadian, American and British periodicals.     
Hereward Kirby Cockin
(1854-1917), the only one of the group not born in Canada, came from England about 1877; associate editor of The Week, Toronto, later on the staff of the Guelph Mercury; author of Gentleman Dick o’ the Greys and Other Poems (1889).     
William Douw Lighthall (1857-1954), lawyer; by 1892, had published The Young Seigneur (fiction) and edited an anthology of Canadian verse, Songs of the Great Dominion; his occasional verse was not collected in book form until 1922.     
Mrs. Susie Frances Harrison
(1859-1935), wife of John F.W. Harrison, professional musician; by 1892, she had published Crowded Out and Other Stories (fiction) and Pine, Rose, and
Fleur-de-lis (poetry); several other volumes of fiction and poetry would follow; she was well known as a professional pianist and vocalist. She often used the pseudonym “Seranus.”     
Helen M. Merrill
(c1867-?) contributed poetry and prose to
Canadian, American and British periodicals; married Frank
Egerton in 1917. [back]
22
TCP, 146. [back]
23
Scott to Carman, 2 November 1891. See #20 above. [back]
24
Sandra Gwyn (The Private Capital, McClelland and Stewart, 1984, p. 457) makes an erroneous assumption: “At a guess, by 1894, Belle was well  into her thirites, considerably older than Scott, who was thirty-two.” According to the 1880 Massachusetts census, Belle was born around 1868. [back]
25
Ottawa Daily Citizen, 7 March 1893. Front page review. [back]
26
Ottawa Daily Citizen, 27 January 1894. [back]
27
E.K. Brown, op. cit., xvii. [back]
28
Stan Dragland, Floating Voice (Concord, Ontario: Anansi, 1994), 82. [back]
29
Scott to Pelham Edgar, 19 April 1908, PEP. [back]
30
D.C. Scott, “Mermaid Inn” columns, The Globe, Toronto. The seven quotations from Scott’s columns appear in the following issues in this order: 2 July 1892, 5 November 1892, 10 September 1892, 6 February 1892, 29 April 1893, 6 May 1893, 24 September 1892. [back]
31
D.C. Scott, “The Little Milliner,” In the Village of Viger (Toronto: Ryerson, 1945; reprint of the original published by Copeland and Day, Boston, 1896), 1. [back]
32
D.C. Scott, “Mermaid Inn” column. The Globe, Toronto, 7 January 1893. [back]
33
Ottawa Daily Citizen, 18 May 1895. [back]
34
Masefield to Scott, 8 November 1905. Duncan Campbell Scott Papers, PAC. [back]
35
Scott to Pelham Edgar, 4 March 1899. More Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott, selected and  edited by Arthur S. Bourinot (privately printed, 1960), 9. The letters from which Bourinot made his selection are to be found in the Pelham Edgar Papers, Victoria College, Toronto, but where possible I have used the Bourinot selection as being more accessible to anyone wishing to check. [back]
36
Scott to Lampman, 30 August 1898. Some Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott, Archibald Lampman and Others, selected and edited by Arthur S. Bourinot (privately printed, 1959), 6. [back]
37
Scott from Sault Ste. Marie to his daughter, 13 August 1899, op. cit., 13. [back]
38
Scott used the alternate spelling “Nepigon” in New World Ballads and Lyrics, but changed it to “Nipigon” in the 1926 edition of his collected poems. [back]
39
Scott to Edgar, 9 October 1905. More Letters of Duncan
Campbell Scott, selected and edited by Arthur S. Bourinot
(privately printed 1960), 29-30. [back]
40
Pelham Edgar, Across My Path (Toronto: Ryerson, 1952), 59-60. [back]
41
Ibid., 64. [back]
42
“I think and hope the passion is sincere,” Scott said, “but  you  will have to count the lady as imaginary.” Scott to E.K. Brown, 12 November 1943. McDougall, The Poet and the Critic, 81. [back]
43
EKB,132. [back]
44
Pelham Edgar, op.cit., 65. [back]
45
Ibid., 66. [back]
46
Scott to Pelham Edgar, 17 July 1907. More Letters of Duncan Campbell Scott, selected and edited by Arthur S. Bourinot (privately printed, 1959), 34-35. [back]
47
Ottawa Daily Citizen, 15 April 1909. [back]
48
Scott to Edgar, undated, but obviously written 16 April 1909, PEP. [back]
49
Brooke to Wilfrid Gibson, 23 July 1913. The Letters of Rupert Brooke, chosen and edited by Geoffrey Keynes (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1968), 487. [back]
50
Timothy Rogers, Rupert Brooke (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), 2. [back]
51
Brooke to Harold Munro, [?] July 1913. Letters (Keynes), 483; Brooke to Wilfrid Gibson, Letters (Keynes), 487. [back]
52
Brooke to Scott, 23 July 1913. Letters (Keynes), 489. [back]
53
Brooke to Harold Munro, 24 July 1913. Letters (Keynes), 492-493. [back]
54
Edmund Morris, The Diaries of Edmund Montague Morris:
Western Journeys, 1907-1910, transcribed by Mary Fitz-Gibbon (Toronto: Royal Toronto Museum, 1985), 154-155. [back]
55
Brooke to Scott, 23 July 1913. Letters (Keynes), 489. [back]
56
E. Brian Titley, Narrow Vision: Duncan Scott and the
Administration of Indian Affairs in  Canada (Vancouver:
University of British Columbia Press, 1986), 22. [back]
57
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Indian Affairs, 1867-1912,” in Canada and its Provinces, Vol, 7, Section 4 (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook & Company, 1914), 622. [back]
58
Scott to E.K. Brown, 2 July 1941, PATC, 26. [back]
59
E. Brian Titley, op. cit., 203. [back]
60
Scott to Edgar, 8 November 1916, PEP. [back]
61
Scott to Edgar, 15 January 1919, PEP. [back]
62
Scott to Edgar, 24 January 1916. Bourinot, op. cit., 51. [back]
63
E.K. Brown, “Memoir,” Selected Poems of Duncan Campbell Scott (Toronto: Ryerson, 1951), xxix. [back]
64
Stan Dragland, op. cit., 171.65. Ottawa Citizen, 15 April and 17 April, 1929. [back]
65
Ottawa Citizen, 15 April and 17 April, 1929. [back]
66
Wilfred Eggleston, Literary Friends (Ottawa: Borealis, 1980), 108. Eggleston quotes his wife who says of Elise Scott: “I could never get past that shutting-out exterior.” [back]
67
Scott to Edgar, 1 April 1932, PEP. [back]
68
Robert L. McDougall, “D.C. Scott: A Trace of Documents and a Touch of Life,” The Duncan Campbell Scott Symposium, K.P. Stich, ed. (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1980), 128-9. [back]
69
Brown to Scott, 17 October 1940, PATC, 20. [back]
70
Scott to Brown, 25 October 1940, PATC, 20. [back]
71
Scott to Brown, 2 July 1941, PATC, 25. [back]
72
Brown  to Scott, 30 November 1942, PATC, 42; “The Lives of a Poet: the Correspondence of Earle Birney and Desmond Pacey, 1957-58,” Edited with an Introduction by Tracey Ware, Canadian Poetry, No. 56, Spring/Summer, 2005, 101. [back]
73
Duncan Campbell Scott, “Foreword,” The Circle of Affection (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1947), ix. [back]
74
Duncan Campbell Scott, Walter J. Phillips (Toronto: Ryerson), 2. [back]
75
Scott to Brown, 15 March 1943, PATC, 58. [back]
76
Scott to Edgar, 8 November 1916, PEP. [back]
77
V.B. Rhodenizer, A Handbook of Canadian Literature (Ottawa: Graphic, 1930), 223. [back]
78
The Globe and Mail, Toronto, 20 December 1947. [back]
79
Madge Macbeth, Over My  Shoulder (Toronto: Ryerson, 1953), 139. [back]

 

VI - WILLIAM WILFRED CAMPBELL

1
The 1861 Census for Belleville lists the following household: Alexr Menzies; gentleman; born in Scotland; religion: Church of England; age 46 Emily R. Menzies; born in England; age 46 Augustus B. Menzies; born in Upper Canada; age 18Robert S. Menzies; born in Upper Canada; age 16 W.H.B. Menzies (male); born in Upper Canada; age 13 Emily R. Menzies; born in Upper Canada; age 16 [Twin of Robert?]
                       .............................................................
On 13 February 1908, the Wiarton Echo reported that Mr. W.H.B. Menzies, of Kalamazoo, Michigan, half-brother of  T.S. Campbell, Wiarton, had received a medal from the Canadian government for service rendered as a member of the Belleville Rifles during a Fenian Raid when he was seventeen years old. [back]
2
The hall of Trinity Church, Wiarton, has a photograph gallery of all the church’s rectors to date.  [back]
3
Obituary notice, Canadian Echo, Wiarton, 28 February 1917.  [back]
4
KLI, 7. Klinck, who had the privilege of consulting with Campbell family members, states that Wilfred “first saw Wiarton in 1872.”  [back]
5
Ibid., 23.  [back]
6
Matilda Campbell to Wilfred Campbell, 10 July 1900. LP.  [back]
7
The 1851 census for Belleville lists the following household: 
John Reid; gentleman; born in Scotland; religion: Church of England; age 52     
Faith H. Reid; born in England; age 45     
Mary Wright; born in England; age 20     
Matilda Wright; born  in England; age 19  [back]
8
The Echo, Wiarton, 15 January 1886. This composition was probably the waltz  “Autumn Leaves” copyrighted in 1886 by W.F. Shaw. A copy of it can be found in  the Lorne Pierce Canadiana Collection, Box 22, Queen’s University Archives.[back]
9
Carl F. Klinck quotes the following item from the Berlin Chronicle and Waterloo County Reformers’ Gazette, 8 June 1858: “Birth, At Berlin on the  1st. inst., the wife of the Rev. Thomas S. Campbell, of a son” (Wilfred Campbell, p. 6). This son (whom Klinck incorrectly assumes to be Wilfred) did not long survive. The next three children followed in quick succession: Frank, born 10 September, 1859 (see 1902 census and his death certificate); Wilfred, born 1 June 1860 (exactly two years later than the first child); and Herbert, born sometime in 1861. His age in the 1901 and 1911 census does not agree with the year that is given. For statements by his mother and Herbert, see Klinck, Wilfred Campbell, note 5, page 263.  [back]
10
KLI, 5. [back]
11
Norman Robertson, The History of the County of Bruce (The Bruce Historical Society, 1960; first published Toronto: William Briggs, 1906), 220. [back]
12
William Wilfred Campbell, “At the Mermaid Inn,” The Globe, Toronto, April 9, 1892. [back]
13
The names of Wilfred’s brothers:     
Thomas Francis Campbell (named Thomas after his father and paternal grandfather, Francis after his maternal grandfather, but always known as Frank).
Herbert Campbell (none of the available records lists a second name for Herbert).
James Ernest Campbell (known as Ernest, but used J.E.
Campbell as his signature).
Victor S. Campbell (likely the “S” stands for Swainston, the
maiden name of his paternal grandmother). [back]
14
T.S. Campbell to Wilfred Campbell, 27 March 1912, LP. [back]
15
The Echo, Wiarton, 8 February 1884. [back]
16
“Interview,” The Canadian Bookman, Vol. I, July 1909, 100. [back]
17
At the Mermaid Inn,” The Globe, 14 January 1893. [back]
18
At the Mermaid Inn,” The Globe, 12 March 1892. [back]
19
Laurel Boone, “Wilfred Campbell Reconsidered,” Canadian Literature, No. 84, Autumn 1982, 68. [back]
20
Between March 7 and April 18, 1884, the Wiarton Echo,
sympathetic to Debelle, was full of this story and printed a  letter from Mary Louisa, who defended herself in a cogent and spirited manner.
[back]
21
Christina Tree & Christine Hamm, New Hampshire, fifth edition (Woodstock, Vermont: Countryman Press, 2002), 242. [back]
22
I have depended upon the research of Carl F. Klinck for the quotations in this paragraph. See his Wilfred Campbell (Tecumseh edition), Chapter Two. [back]
23
KLI. The quotations regarding West Claremont and St. Stephen are on pages 49 and 48 respectively. [back]
24
The Dominion  Illustrated, March 12, 1889. From the column RED AND BLUE PENCIL, signed “Talon.” [back]
25
Roberts  to Campbell, 28 December 1888,  CLSCGDR, 99. [back]
26
Roberts to Campbell, 15 November 1888, CLSCGDR, 92. [back]
27
Roberts  to J.E. Wetherell, 15 June 1893. Quoted by Pomeroy in Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, 128. [back]
28
Willliam Morton Payne, “Recent Books of Poetry,” The Dial, Vol. X, No. 119, February 1890, 118. [back]
29
Roberts to Campbell, 12 August 1889, CLSCGDR, 110. [back]
30
Carman to Campbell, 23 March 1890, LBC, 36. [back]
31
Campbell to Carman, 27 August 1890. Bliss Carman Papers, Smith College Library, Northampton, Massachusetts. See “Letters to Carman, 1890-92, from Campbell, Lampman and Scott,” edited with an introduction by Tracey Ware, Canadian Poetry, No. 27, Fall/ Winter, 1990. [back]
32
W. J. Sykes, “Memoir,” The Poetical Works of Wilfred Campbell (London and Toronto: Hodder and Stoughton, 1922), xvii. [back]
33
Sir John A. Macdonald to Campbell, 3 April 1891, LP. [back]
34
Official Report of the Debates of the House of Commons of the Dominion of Canada, 28 September 1891. [back]
35
Debates of the Senate, 18 May 1892. 36. Lampman to Thomson, 16 February 1892. Helen Lynn, ed., An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980), 36-37. [back]
36
Lampman to Thomson, 16 February 1892. Helen Lynn, ed., An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980), 36-37. [back]
37
The Globe, Toronto, 5 March 1892. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn (UTP, 1979), 30. [back]
38
The Globe, Toronto, 1 July 1893. Reprinted in At the Mermaid Inn (UTP, 1979), 341-343. [back]
39
Roberts to MacMechan, 30 May 1893, CLSCGDR, 173. [back]
40
Unsigned review, The Critic, New York, 7 April 1894, 235. [back]
41
KLI, 50. [back]
42
Lampman to Thomson, 16 August 1893. Lynn, op. cit., 92-93. [back]
43
KLI, 56. [back]
44
Lampman to Thomson, 5 July 1897. Lynn, op. cit., 187. [back]
45
Lady Aberdeen to Campbell, 29 January 1894, LP. [back]
46
Goldwin Smith to Campbell, 19 December 1905, LP. [back]
47
Bliss Carman, Letter to the Editor, The Globe, 13 July 1895. [back]
48
Roberts to Carman, 11 July 1895, CLSCGDR, 205. [back]
49
Lynn, op. cit., 139. Lampman to Thomson, 6 May 1895. [back]
50
Letter from Lampman  to Campbell, Queen’s University Archives. [back]
51
Scott to E.K. Brown, 27 February 1943, PATC, 56. [back]
52
Quoted by Klinck in Wilfred Campbell, 171. [back]
53
Lorne Pierce Collection, Box 10, Queen’s University Archives. [back]
54
Laurier to Campbell, 1 April 1901, LP. [back]
55
Lord Grey to Campbell, 21 April 1910, LP. [back]
56
Mackenzie King to Campbell, 31 July 1911, LP. [back]
57
Lampman to Thomson, 11 March 1895. Lynn, op. cit., 133. [back]
58
Ottawa Evening Journal, 14 November 1903. Note: I have altered the punctuation slightly from the original. [back]
59
Ottawa Evening Journal, 5 December 1903. [back]
60
W.J. Sykes, “Memoir,” The Poetical Works of Wilfred Campbell, (London, Toronto: Hodder and Stoughton, 1922), xx. [back]
61
Ottawa Citizen, 2 January 1918. [back]
62
Ottawa Evening Journal, 12 January 1918. [back]
63
Edmund Clarence Stedman  to Charles G.D. Roberts, 11 March 1896. Quoted by E.M. Pomeroy in Sir Charles G.D. Roberts: A Biography, 145. [back]
64
Campbell to Ethelwyn Wetherald. Quoted by Klinck in Wilfred Campbell, 96. [back]
65
Johnson to Campbell, 9 June 1895, LP. [back]
66
King to Mary Louisa Campbell, 19 July 1923. LP. King paid for Campbell’s monument with the assistance of Violet Markham, a wealthy Englishwoman, who met him  in 1905 while visiting the Greys at Government House. As a long-lasting platonic friendship developed, the philantrophic Miss Markham (who married Major James Carruthers in 1915) came to King’s aid whenever she felt he needed financial assistance. In 1937 the Women’s Institute erected a cairn for Campbell  in Wiarton. Because of road construction, it was demolished and rebuilt in 1967. Its present location is in Bluewater Park, Wiarton, overlooking Colpoy’s Bay. [back]
67
67. W.J. Sykes, op. cit., xxi. [back]

 

VII - FREDERICK GEORGE SCOTT

1
“As for that other Scott—Good Gawd!” E. W. Thomson wrote to Lampman on 3 June 1893, expostulating on the “twaddle” of  “In Memoriam,” Scott’s poem commemorating the volunteers killed in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. See Lynn, An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson  (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980), 83. [back]
2
John Neate to Caroline Neate, 12 January 1818, FGSP. [back]
3
John Neate to Caroline Scott, 4 April 1842, FGSP. [back]
4
John Neate to Caroline Scott, 28 February 1845, FGSP. [back]
5
Djwa, Sandra, The Politics of the Imagination: A Life of F.R. Scott (Toronto: McClelland &     Stewart, 1987), 15. [back]
6
William Scott to Elizabeth Sproston, 19 July 1846, FGSP. [back]
7
Impressions gained from reading family letters, FGSP. [back]
8
To date, this is the first magazine publication I have found of any of his poems. [back]
9
F.G.S.’s letter to his family, 17 January 1883, FGSP. [back]
10
F.G.S. to Emily Scott, 21 February 1883, FGSP. [back]
11
Elizabeth Scott to Frederick Scott, 11 March 1883, FGSP. [back]
12
F.G.S. to his father, 17 May 1883, FGSP. [back]
13
On Thursday, 17 May at 8:30 a.m., someone (probably Emily Scott) wrote down William Scott’s comments with this notation: “Words spoken by Father when talking of Fred,” FGSP. [back]
14
F.G.S. to his mother, 26 May 1883, FGSP. [back]
15
Frederick George Scott, manuscript of “A Visit to Cardinal
Newman,” FGSP. [back]
16
Frederick George Scott, The Great War As I Saw It (Toronto: F.D. Goodchild, 1922), 135, 187. [back]
17
Frederick George Scott’s diary, FGSP. [back]
18
Amy Brooks to F.G.S., 31 December 1885, FGSP. [back]
19
Amy Brooks  to F.G.S., 11 February 1886, FGSP. [back]
20
Amy Brooks to F.G.S., 4 November 1886, FGSP. [back]
21
Matilda Preddy to F.G.S., 18 September 1886, FGSP. [back]
22
Frank Scott to F.G.S., 19 September 1886, FGSP. [back]
23
Bishop Williams to F.G.S., 14 April 1887, FGSP. [back]
24
Bishop Williams to church wardens, 18 April 1887, FGSP. [back]
25
Amy Brooks to F.G.S., 29 March, 1887, FGSP. [back]
26
Charles Scott to F.G.S., 29 March 1887, FGSP. [back]
27
Frank Scott to F.G.S., 28  March 1887, FGSP. [back]
28
Amy Brooks  to F.G.S., 29 March 1886, FGSP. [back]
29
Anecdote related to the author by Mr. & Mrs. J.R. Harlow, Sillery, Quebec. The incident took place when Scott was rector of St. Matthew’s, Quebec City. [back]
30
Undated clipping from the Morning Post[?], London, FGSP. [back]
31
Charles G.D. Roberts to F.G.S., 15 January 1889, CLSCGDR, 103. In Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, E.M. Pomeroy states: “In speaking of Scott in later years, Roberts ... particularly drew attention to his striking sonnet, ‘I saw Time in his workshop carving faces’.” [back]
32
The Athenaeum, 3 June 1893, 101: 697. [back]
33
Thomas Whittaker to F.G.S., 13 October, 1894, FGSP. [back]
34
Roberts to W.E. Wetherell, 15 June 1893. Quoted by E.M. Pomeroy in Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, 127. The anthology is Later Canadian Poems, 1893. [back]
35
Bishop Dunn to F.G.S., 22 March 1893, FGSP. [back]
36
F.G.S. to Bishop Dunn, 30 March 1893, FGSP. [back]
37
Djwa, op. cit., 22. [back]
38
Frank Scott to F.G.S., 16 October 1897, FGSP. [back]
39
Djwa,  op. cit., 23. [back]
40
Duncan Campbell Scott to F.G.S., 6 May 1898,ist. FGSP. [back]
41
This quotation is part of the note Scott appended  to the poem in his Collected Poems (Vancouver: Clark and Stuart, 1934), 177. The year may have been 1896, not 1897 as Scott remembered. If the latter date is correct, the poem was written just in time to appear in the new collection. [back]
42
Djwa., op.cit., 26. [back]
43
Ibid., 30. [back]
44
Melvin O. Hammond Diaries, Ontario Archives, Toronto. [back]
45
Frederick George Scott, op. cit., 54. [back]
46
Ibid., 65. [back]
47
Ibid., 67. [back]
48
Ibid., 145. [back]
49
Ibid., 172. [back]
50
Ibid., 176. [back]
51
Ibid., 316-317. [back]
52
Ibid., 319-329. [back]
53
M. Jeanne Yardly, “ ‘The Bitterness and the Greatness’: Reading F.G. Scott’s War,” Studies in Canadian Literature, Volume 16.1, 1991, 83. [back]
54
Frederick George Scott, op. cit., 319-320. [back]
55
Ibid., 117. [back]
56
Hubert Evans, “Canon Scott,” Maclean’s Magazine, 1 November 1938, 15. [back]
57
The Strikers’ Own History of the Winnipeg General Strike, edited with an introduction by Norman Penner (Toronto: James Lewis and Samuel, 1973), 136. [back]
58
Canada, House of Commons Debates, 1934, 4623. [back]
59
E.A. Pucker, “The Social Concern of Canon Scott,” Journal of the Canadian Church Historical Society, Vol. XXII, October 1980, 14. This article should be  consulted for a more detailed outline of Scott’s role as a social activist. [back]
60
Djwa, op. cit., 204. [back]
61
At the time of Scott’s death, two of William’s sons were in active service: Captain H.J. Scott, R.C.A.M.C., overseas; Lieutenant Geoffrey Scott, R.C.N.V. R. in the Far East. William’s youngest son, Richard, at age eighteen was rejected by the air force because of poor eyesight. Hoping, with the aid of glasses, to get into the  ground crew with  the Royal Air Force, he decided to work his way across the Atlantic as a cabin boy with the merchant navy. His ship was sunk by a German U-boat. Word of his death reached his family on 23 March 1943. Mary’s son,  F.G. Kelley, was training with the R.C.A.F. in Canada. [back]
62
New York Times, 17 April 1944. [back]

 

VIII - PAULINE JOHNSON

1
Pauline Johnson to J.D. Logan, 5 December 1912. Written from the Bute Street Hospital, Vancouver, just a few months before her death. This letter, which  I copied from the John D. Logan Collection at Acadia University, Wolfville, N.S., in 1955, now appears to be missing. [back]
2
Pauline Johnson, The Moccasin Maker (Toronto: Briggs, 1913; reprinted Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1987, edited by A. laVonne Brown Ruoff, using the original pagination), 32-33. [back]
3
Ibid., 34 [back]
4
Pauline Johnson, “From a Child’s Viewpoint,” Mother’s Magazine, 1910. Quoted by Sheila M.F. Johnston, Buckskin and Broadcloth (Toronto: Natural Heritage, 1997), 29. [back]
5
Pauline Johnson, The Moccasin Maker, 24. [back]
6
Ibid., 23. [back]
7
Ibid., 70. [back]
8
Pauline Johnson, “From the Child’s Viewpoint,” Mother’ Magazine, 1910; reprinted in E. Pauline Johnson, Tekahionwake: Collected Poems and Selected Prose, ed. by Gerson & Strong-Boag (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 239.  [back]
9
Horatio Hale, “Chief George M. Johnson,” Magazine of American History, Vol. 13, 141. [back]
10
Marcus Van Steen, Pauline Johnson: Her Life and Work
(Toronto: Musson, 1965), 6. [back]
11
F. Douglas Reville, History of the County of Brant, Vol. II (Brantford: Hurley Printing, 1920), 631. Reville devotes seven pages to Pauline Johnson, his wife’s late friend. His claim that “My Little Jean” appeared in Gems of Poetry cannot be confirmed, but I have chosen to accept it as fact. [back]
12
Brantford Daily Courier, 13 October 1886. [back]
13
Ibid, 14 October 1886. [back]
14
Charlotte Gray, Flint and Feather (Toronto: HarperCollins, 2002), 97-103. [back]
15
The Brantford Expositor, Anniversary Number, July 1, 1927, 45. [back]
16
Evelyn H. C. Johnson, “Chiefswood,” Manuscript, Archives of Ontario, Toronto, Ontario. [back]
17
Walter McRaye, Pauline Johnson and Her Friends (Toronto: Ryerson, 1947). 55. After retiring from the University of Toronto in 1936, Mackenzie moved from 1 Bellwoods Park, Toronto, to 1st Street, Oakville, Ontario. On 5 July 1949, he died of a heart attack while sailing on Lake Huron. He was survived by his widow, a son, and three daughters. [back]
18
“Both Sides,” appeared unsigned in Life (a New York weekly resembling Punch), 27 September 1888. The copy  in Johnson’s scrapbook is a reprint that appeared in another publication. See also Gerson and Strong-Boag, E. Pauline Johnson:Tekahionwake, Collected Poems and Selected Prose (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002), 321. [back]
19
William Douw Lighthall, editor, Songs of the Great Dominion (London: Walter Scott, 1889; reprinted Toronto: Coles Publishing Company, 1971). 453. [back]
20
Athenaeum, 28 September 1889, 412. [back]
21
Theodore Watts-Dunton, “In Memoriam: Pauline Johnson,” Flint and Feather (Toronto: Musson, 17th edition, 1943), vii. [back]
22
Charotte Gray, op. cit., 122. [back]
23
A Sinclair Lewis Reader, Harry E. Maule and Melville H. Cane, eds. (New York: Random House, 1952), 15. [back]
24
Saturday Night, 23 January 1892, 7. [back]
25
Ibid. [back]
26
Frank Yeigh, “Recollections  of Pauline Johnson,” The Western Home Monthly, October 1924, 63. [back]
27
Ibid. [back]
28
Saturday Night, 27 February 1892, 6. [back]
29
Pauline Johnson to J.E. Wetherell, 16 June [1893], J.E. Wetherell Papers, Thomas Fisher Rare Books Room, University of Toronto. [back]
30
Pauline Johnson, The Moccasin Maker (Toronto: William Briggs, 1913), 81. [back]
31
Aidé had befriended Richard Hovey and his wife upon their arrival in London in May 1894. Before long, however, Hovey was missing the comradeship of Bliss Carman and Tom Meteyard.  “I wish you and Tom were over here,” he wrote to Carman on 24 June 1894. I have a large thirst on me and am pining for the vagabonds. The English are very nice but deadly slow—most  as slow as Boston.”  Quoted by Alan Houston Macdonald  in Richard Hovey; Man & CraftsmanDurham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1957), 155. [back]
32
The Courier, Brantford, 27 July 1894. Besides adding information in square brackets, I have broken Johnson’s long account into paragraphs, changed some punctuation, and corrected a couple of misspelled names. [back]
33
Gilbert Parker, The Translation of a Savage, Imperial Edition, Vol. VII (New York: Scribner’s, 1913) 9. Earlier publication (1) New York: Appleton, 1893; (2) London: Methuen, 1894.  [back]
34
“E. Pauline Johnson,” McMaster University Monthly, 14 (1904), 104. [back]
35
Johnson to A. Harry O’Brien, 20 June 1894. Queen’s University Archives, Kingston, Ontario. [back]
36
Marcus Van Steen, Pauline Johnson: Her Life and Work
(Toronto: Musson, 1965), 25. [back]
37
Johnson to A. Harry O’Brien, 25 August 1894. Queen’s University Archives, Kingston, Ontario. [back]
38
Frederick George Scott, quoted by Walter McRaye in Leading Canadian Poets, edited by W.P.  Percival (Toronto: Ryerson, 1948), 98. Charlotte Gray believes that Belle Scott “decreed that [the buckskin] was inappropriate” (Flint and Feather, 222). [back]
39
Pauline Johnson, “The Singer of Tantramar,” Massey’s Magazine, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1896, 18. [back]
40
Ibid. [back]
41
E.M. Pomeroy, Sir Charles G.D. Roberts (Toronto: Ryerson, 1943), 138. The poem, “The Douglas Shore,” seemingly never published, appears to have been lost. [back]
42
Roberts to Stedman, 8 November 1895, CLSCGDR, 214. [back]
43
Petrone, Penny, Native Literature in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1990, 78. [back]
44
Wilfrid Eggleston, Literary Friends (Ottawa: Borealis, 1980), 69.  In 1903, Lloyd Roberts went to New York to live with his father, who found him a position with the magazine Outing. In Town Hall Tonight (Toronto: Ryerson, 1929), 38, Walter McRaye tell us that when Johnson submitted her poem “The Train Dogs” to Outing in 1904, Lloyd, a young whippersnapper of nineteen, rejected it, saying he “knew she could do better work.” McRaye embellishes the story incorrectly by adding “She smiled for she had held this youth on her knees years before at Windsor, Nova Scotia.” Not only was it Fredericton , not Windsor, but since Lloyd would have been an eleven-year-old boy, it is unlikely that he would have allowed her to hold him on her knee. [back]
45
The Bookman, New York, Vol. II, No. 3, November 1895, 237. [back]
46
Toronto Saturday Night, 18 July 1903, 5. [back]
47
Walter McRaye, Town Hall Tonight (Toronto: Ryerson, 1929), 56. [back]
48
Johnson to her sister Evelyn, 8 December 1911. Johnson fonds, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario. [back]
49
Johnson to J.D. Logan, 5 December 1912. See Note #1. [back]
50
E. Pauline Johnson, Legends of Vancouver (Vancouver and Toronto: Douglas & McIntyre, 1977; originally printed privately, 1911), 133. [back]
51
James Doyle, Annie Howells and Achille Fréchette (University of Toronto Press, 1979), 89. [back]
52
Quoted by Ernest Thompson Seton in his “Introduction” to The Shagganappi (Toronto: William Briggs, 1913), 5. [back]
53
“When George Was King” was first published in Black and White (London), Christmas Number 1906. 15. It next appeared in When George Was King and Other Poems, printed in 1908 by the Brockville Times. The following stanza is the second of five:
                        Tales of revels at wayside inns,
                        The goblets gaily filling.
                        Braggarts boasting a thousand sins

                        Though none can boast a shilling.

                             And ‘tis O! for the wine,

                             The frothing stein,

                        And the clamour of cups a-spilling. [back]
54
Pauline Johnson, The Shagganappi (Toronto: WIlliam Briggs, 1913), 11. [back]
55
Desmond Pacey to Mrs. Olive Dickason, 6 March 1961. Pacey Papers, PAC. [back]
56
George W. Lyon, “Pauline Johnson: A Reconsideration,” Studies in Canadian Literature, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1990, 156.X [back]

 

IX - THE WHIRLIGIG OF TIME

1
This quotation, one of several caustic notations by Pomeroy, is written on page xxx of a copy of  Brown’s Selected Poems of Duncan Campbell Scott. Pomeroy gave the book to me in 1967. [back]
2
Brown to D.C. Scott, 26 June 1943, PATC, 69. [back]
3
Ibid. Brown writes: “I saw Roberts at a dinner in Toronto. He’s in the 7th heaven over Miss P’s book.” [back]
4
Roberts to Edith Roberts, 29 June 1943, CLSCGDR, 641. [back]
5
JEC, 465. [back]
6
Susanna Moodie to Sangster, 28 July 1856. Ballstradt, Hopkins, Peterman, eds., Susanna Moodie:  Letters of a Lifetime (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985), 166. [back]
7
JEC, 496. [back]
8
JEC, 479. [back]
9
William Douw Lighthall, ed., “Introduction,” Songs of the Great Dominion (London: Walter Scott, 1889), xxiv. [back]
10
Roberts to Lighthall, 23 May 1888, CLSCGDR, 77. [back]
11
Roberts to Lighthall, 9 August 1888, CLSCGDR, 86. [back]
12
Roberts to Richard Watson Gilder, 17 October 1887, CLSCGDR, 68. [back]
13
Roberts to Lighthall, 30 September 1888, CLSCGDR, 88. [back]
14
Campbell to J.E. Wetherell, 6 March 1893. J.E. Wetherell Papers, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Room, University of Toronto. [back]
15
Archibald Lampman, “Two Canadians: A Lecture, 1891,” edited by E.K. Brown, University of  Toronto Quarterly, Vol. XIII, No. 4, July 1944, 410. [back]
16
Roberts to Carman, 31 December 1892, CLSCGDR, 164. [back]
17
Roberts to Archibald MacMechan, 30 May 1893, CLSCGDR, 173. [back]
18
Entry  in M.O. Hammond Diaries, 20 July 1908. Archives of Ontario. [back]
19
E. Pauline Johnson, “The Singer of Tantramar,” Massey’s
Magazine, Vol. I, No. 1, January 1896, 15. [back]
20
Bliss Carman, “Contemporaries—V. Mr. Charles G.D. Roberts,” The Chap-Book, Chicago, 1 January 1895, 163, 170. [back]
21
Campbell  to Wetherell, 14 November 1892. J.E. Wetherell Papers, Thomas Fisher Rare Book Room, University of Toronto. [back]
22
Thomas Harding Rand, “Preface,” A Treasury of Canadian Verse (Toronto: Briggs, 1900), xii. [back]
23
Archibald MacMurchy, Handbook of Canadian Literature
(Toronto: Briggs, 1906). The quotations, in order, are from pages 183, 198, 195, 203, 208, 210, 213, 221. MacMurchy’s work was preceded by “Outline History of Canadian Literature,” a 53-page essay by  G. Mercer Adam in William H. Withrow’s An Abridged History of Canada (Toronto: Briggs, 1887). Adam gives “senior place” to Sangster (p. 230). Of the two collections Roberts had published to date, Adam prefers In Divers Tones, “which has many poems of the highest order  and quality of verse, with a sweetness and music that sing their way into the heart” (p. 231). The only other Confederation Poet mentioned is Pauline Johnson, but hers is merely a  name in a list of the “literary sisterhood” (p. 225). [back]
24
Thomas Guthrie Marquis, English-Canadian Literature (originally Vol XII, Canada and Her Provinces, Edinburgh University Press). I have used the reprint from the Bourinot, Marquis, Roy volume, edited by Clara Thomas in the Literature of Canada series (Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1973). The quotations, in order, are on pages 572, 577, 587, 584. [back]
25
J.D. Logan and Donald G. French, Highways of Canadian
Literature (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1924). The
quotations, in order, are from the following pages: 219; 124, 126 (Roberts); 128 (Lampman); 140 (Carman); 159 (D.C. Scott); 185 (Campbell); 209 (Johnson); 218 (F.G.  Scott). [back]
26
Archibald MacMechan, “Preface,” Headwaters of Canadian
Literature (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1924; reprinted in New Canadian Library 1974), n.p. [back]
27
W.A. Deacon, Poteen (Ottawa: Graphic, 1926), 161. [back]
28
Charles G.D. Roberts, ‘A Note on Modernism,’ Open House, edited by William Arthur Deacon (Ottawa: Graphic, 1931), 19-20. [back]
29
L.A. MacKay, “Bliss Carman,” The Canadian Forum, Vol. 13, No. 149, February 1933, 183. [back]
30
Leo Kennedy, “Archibald Lampman,’ The Canadian Forum, Vol. 13, No.152, May 1933, 302-3. [back]
31
Robert Ayre, “Pauline Johnson,” The Canadian Forum, Vol. 14, No. 158, October 1933, 17. [back]
32
L.A. MacKay, “William Wilfred Campbell,” The Canadian Forum, Vol. 14, No. 159, November 1933, 66. [back]
33
Sir Charles G.D. Roberts, Selected Poems (Toronto: Ryerson, 1936), viii. [back]
34
Roberts to Harrison Smith Morris, 16 March 1937, CLSCGDR, 521. [back]
35
In New Provinces a misprint— “winds” instead of  “wings”— occurs in the sixth line of this poem. [back]
36
Patricia Morley, As Though Life Mattered: Leo Kennedy’s Story (Montreal, Kingston, London, Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1994), 28, 106. [back]
37
Germaine Warkentin, “Introduction,” The White Savannahs (U.T.P., 1975; reprint of edition published in 1936 by Macmillan of Canada), xxvii. [back]
38
D.M.R. Bentley, The Confederation Group of Canadian Poets, 1880-1897 (U.T.P., 2004), 291. [back]
39
Brown to Scott, 17 July 1943, PATC, 70. [back]
40
EKB. The quotations will be found on pages 53, 54, 56 and 119. [back]
41
Carman to  Margaret Laurence, 25 February 1928. LBC, 357. Originally, Carman had undertaken a revision of Campbell’s Oxford Book of Canadian Verse, but switched to a collaboration with Lorne Pierce of Ryerson Press. In 1922 an anthology of Canadian prose and poetry, also called Our Canadian Literature had been edited by Pierce and Albert Durrant Watson (1859-1926). When Ryerson Press issued Canadian Poetry in English in 1954, it was listed as an enlarged revision of the 1922 and 1934 volumes. Carman and Pierce were still named as editors of this third edition, along with V.B. Rhodenizer. It was scathingly reviewed  in the London Times  (Literary Supplement, 5 November 1954) for “depressing good writing by according it the same reception as inferior work.” [back]
42
The McGill News, Autumn 1963, 16. [back]
43
See Chapter 1, note 15. [back]
44
The Canadian Author and Bookman, Vol. XX, No. 2, June 1944, 20. [back]
45
The Saturday Review of Literature, Vol. XXVII, No. 18, 29 April 1944, 10. [back]
46
DP. The quotations in turn are from pages 62, 66 (1954 edition) and page 68 (1961 edition). [back]
47
Literary History of Canada, Vol. I  (Toronto and Buffalo: UTP, rev. 1976), 405. [back]
48
Canadian Writers and Their Work, Vol I (Downsview, Ontario: ECW Press, 1983). 23. [back]
49
Strong-Boag and Gerson, Paddling Her Own Canoe (Toronto, Buffalo, London: UTP, 2000) 123. [back]
50
Tracy Ware, ed., A Northern Romanticism: Poets  of the
Confederation (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 2000), 223-4. [back]
51
D.M.R. Bentley, The Confederation Group of Canadian Poets, 1880-1897 (Toronto, Buffalo, London, 2004), 296. [back]
52
Roberts to Deacon, 23 October 1926, DEA, 344. [back]
53
Sandra Djwa, The Politics of the Imagination: A Life of F.R. Scott (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1987), 206. [back]
54
Leaders and Dreamers, commemorative issue of  Maclean’s, 2004 (literature section by Brian Bethune), 120. Johnson is the only poet featured in another Maclean’s article, “25 Canadians Who Inspired the World” by J.L. Granatstein and Norman Hillmer, 4 September 2000, 38. [back]
55
These critics include George W. Lyons and Glenn Willmott. See also “Pauline Johnson: a biograpical, thematic and stylistic study,” M.A. thesis by Marilyn Beker, Sir George Williams University, 1974. [back]
56
Review of Marcus Van Steen’s Pauline Johnson: Her Life and Work in Canadian Author and Bookman, Vol. 41, No. 2, Winter 1965, 8. [back]
57
Pauline Johnson Still Lives (Calgary: Centre Peak Productions, 1992). This well-produced book of 284 pages appears to have been self-published by the author, Evelyn A. Willison (1912-1993), a retired teacher. [back]
58
L.A. MacKay, op. cit. [back]
59
Lorne Pierce, An Outline of Canadian Literature (Montreal, New York, London: Louis Carrier, 1928), 78. [back]
60
W. J. Keith, “Poets of the Confederation: Current Approaches,” Canadian Poetry, No. 14, Spring/Summer 1984, 89. [back]
61
A.J.M.Smith, The Book of Canadian Poetry (Chicago, Toronto: University of Chicago Press, 1943), 22. [back]
62
DEA, 55. [back]
63
Lorne Pierce, op. cit., 34. [back]
64
EMP, 110. [back]
65
Canadian Writers and Their Works, Poetry Series, Vol. 2, 23. [back]
66
Mary B. McGillivary, “Inscribing the Vagabond: Excerpt from a Life,” note 2, Canadian Poetry, No. 52, Spring/Summer 2003, 83. [back]
67
Canadian Writers and Their Works, Poetry Series, Vol 2. The quotations are from pages 87 and 93. [back]
68
W.J. Keith, op. cit. [back]
69
Cited in Noel Stock, The Life of Ezra Pound: An Expanded Edition (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), 81. [back]
70
Poetry and Prose, Vol. 2, Ed. Lea Baechler, A. Walton Litz, and James Longenbach (New York: Garland Press, 1991), 303. [back]
71
The Impossible Sum of Our Traditions, Introduction by David Staines (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1986), 44. [back]
72
Ibid., 54. [back]
73
“On Bliss Carman,” Bliss Carman: A Reappraisal, Edited with an Introduction by Gerald Lynch (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1990), 24. [back]
74
“Archibald Lampman and the Sonnet, Poet-Lore, Vol. 20
(November 1909), 432. [back]
75
DP, 50. [back]
76
“Preface,” Archibald Lampman (Boston: Twayne. 1986), n.p. [back]
77
The  Sir Charles G.D. Roberts Symposium, Edited with an
Introduction by Glenn Clever (Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1984), 217. [back]
78
Towards a View of Canadian Letters: Selected Critical Essays, 1928-1971 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1973), 80. [back]
79
(a) Atwood in “Introduction,” The New Book of Canadian Verse in English (Toronto, London, New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), xxxiii. (b) Woodcock in Northern Spring (Vancouver: Douglas &
McIntyre, 1987), 186. [back]
80
Scott to Edgar, February 1905, PEP. [back]
81
DEA, 76. [back]