Duncan Campbell Scott
Addresses‚ Essays‚ and Reviews
For each essay and review, these Editorial Notes consist of two parts: a headnote and annotations. The purpose of each headnote is to designate the text of the essay or review upon which the present edition is based, to describe and discuss textual matters, and to provide a general context for the essay or review and the ensuing annotations. The purpose of the annotations is fourfold: to identify and explain words and references that might be obscure to modern readers; to describe significant variants in the manuscripts or original printings of the essays and reviews and the quotations that they contain; to indicate parallels between the essays and reviews and Scott’s poems; and to call attention to passages that derive from or, as the case may be, engage with the work of other writers. In the last two categories, the annotations are intended to complement the headnotes and the Introduction, where emphasis is placed, not on local debts and arguments, but on more general matters of literary-critical context.
[The Character and Work of Heinrich Heine]
A reference in this unpublished holograph piece to Germany’s “William the Victorious” as ruling “in our day,” and another to “the German Empire of today” combine to place the Heine talk somewhere between 1890 and 1914, the dates of William’s reign. The fact that the address is contained in the Archibald Lampman Papers, Public Archives of Canada, together with the relatively legible character of Scott’s handwriting, suggest that it belongs to a period preceding Lampman’s death in 1899. But the surest key to dating the piece is in Scott’s reference to the date (1831) of Heine’s decision to seek exile and his endorsement of the accuracy of Heine’s “estimate of England at that time, sixty years ago.” Even if he is rounding off to sixty years, it seems likely that he is speaking from somewhere near 1891.
The manuscript may be reasonably legible, but in various ways it is not a final draft. Some pages have been renumbered, some of [page 519] them twice, one thrice, as Scott inserted new material and crossed our certain passages. One of the two unpaginated pages quotes a lengthy passage from Heine which does not form part of the address; this excerpt has been omitted. Where Scott has deleted a few sentences of quotation from Heine or a few of his own that were clearly expendable, they have been left out. But here is a crossed out fragment of considerable interest, perhaps a rejected opening:
When I allowed my name to be put down for a lecture on Heinrich Heine, I was under the impression that I knew something about him. I had read every word of his seven closely printed octavo volumes. I had, long ago, translated several hundred of his verses. I had read essays and lectures upon him. And you never discover how little you know about any subject until you come to write upon it; though my trouble lies rather in the embarrassment of riches than
As Scott delivered his address to the Ottawa Scientific and Literary Society, he no doubt segued past the rough spots in a manuscript which he might have cleaned up had he intended it for publication. For a brief history of the Society, see R.L. McDougall, The Poet and the Critic: A Literary Correspondance between D.C. Scott and E.K. Brown (Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 1979), 230 (Letter 77, n.2).
“seven closely-printed octavo volumes”: German octavo editions of Heine’s works abound, so it is difficult to establish which edition Scott used to prepare this address, though a reference to “Heine’s biographer, Becker” hints that he may have read Gottfried Becker’s German edition of the Sämtliche Werke (Philadelphia: Schäfer und Konradi, 1868). The quotations that appear in the body of the essay do not seem to match any contemporary English translations (such as the 1891-3 Heinemann edition, translated by Charles Godfrey Leland); this, combined with a certain adherence to Germanic grammatical structures in the translated passages, supports the idea that Scott may have performed his own translation. As in his address, “George Bernard Shaw, Scott may have used a selected quotations volume as an aide-memoire during composition. Wit, Wisdom, and Pathos, from the Prose of Heinrich Heine, with a few Pieces from the “Book of Songs,” Trans. J. Snodgrass (London: Alexander Gardner, 1888), contains a number of the same passages as Scott’s address, as does Matthew Arnold’s essay on Heine, “Heinrich Heine,” which appears in Arnold’s Essays in Criticism (London: [page 520] Macmillan, 1891), 156-93. Arnold’s essay is also the direct source of some of Scott’s remarks; for example, Arnold writes of Heine, “His works…filling seven closely-printed octavo volumes, ha[ve] been published in America; in the collected editions of few people’s works is there so little to skip” (171). One further source of biographical information acknowledged by Scott is an acerbic Encyclopedia Britannica article by one “Ferrier.” An entry by J.W.F. matching this description appears as late as the eleventh edition of The Encyclopaedia Britannica; a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information (Cambridge and New York: University P, 1910-1), vol. H, 213-5.
Nathan the Wise: The title of a 1779 play by German dramatist and literary critic Ephraim Gotthold Lessing (1729-1781). Lessing, a devotee of Shakespeare, also founded the journal Briefe, die Neueste Literatur Betreffend (1759-65).
Goethe’s Faust: The most famous of the works of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) is the dramatic poem, Faust, published in parts in 1808 and 1832. Goethe, like Lessing, was a key figure in the late eighteenth-century stylistic movement known as sturm und drang (storm and stress), which emphasized the influence of individual perception and sensibility upon the formation of subjectivity. Professionally, Goethe occupied a variety of positions ranging from minister of state to director of the state theatre at the court of Weimar. Although Heine worshipped Goethe, as the excerpt from Eckermann’s letter demonstrates, Goethe’s opinion of Heine was negligible.
Weimar: The name of both the capital and the court of the German duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), was an English literary critic and poet. Arnold’s poems, including the well-known “Dover Beach,” are still widely anthologized, and Scott was certainly familiar with them. However, in his essays, addresses and reviews, it is Arnold’s prose which Scott quotes most often; in particular, On Translating Homer (1861) and Essays in Criticism (1865; 1888) seem to be important critical (and stylistic) touchstones.
“I determined to give you, not so much Thomas Cross on Heinrich Heine as Heine himself”: Scott’s mysterious reference to Thomas Cross suggests an extant Heine biography a man of that name; however, no such work seems to exist. There is microform evidence that a man named Thomas Cross addressed the Literary [page 521] and Scientific Society at least once before this date, in a speech entitled The colonies and Indian in London; read before the Literary and Scientific Society of Ottawa, 5th April, 1887 (Ottawa: Woodburn, 1887?). The Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society published its transactions only from 1897 to 1906, which makes tracing earlier addresses difficult. It is possible that this same Thomas Cross gave an address on Heine previous to Scott’s effort; this might account for Scott’s decision to focus on Heine’s prose rather than his poetry, and for his remark.
“the principle [sic] thing is that I was born”: See The Works of Heinrich Heine, Trans. Charles Godfrey Leland (London: Heinemann, 1891-3) Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 297. All quotations with volume numbers refer to this translation unless otherwise indicated.
“What Rousseau said he did…”: See Heine’s Confessions, in The Prose Writing of Heine, Havelock Ellis, ed. (London: Walter Scott, 1887), 291, where Heine remarks of Rousseau, “His self-portraiture is a lie, admirably executed, but still only a brilliant lie.” Scott suggests that Heine’s travel writing forms a more reliable autobiography.
Treaty of Campo Formio: The peace treaty between France and Austria, signed by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Cobenzl near Campo Formio, Italy (Venetia) in October 1797.
“French has its difficulties…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 312-3.
apprendre par coeur: To learn by heart.
bête allemande: German beast.
Le crédit: This is a play on words in this passage—“der Glaube” is German for faith, belief, creed or religion, whereas “le crédit" can mean reputation or influence, financial credit, the act of selling or hiring something on credit, as well as connoting trust. “La réligion,” which means religion, or religious faith, is a much more direct French translation of “der Glaube” than is “le credit." Heine’s childish error (or adult witticism) in translating credulity as credit thus exasperates his tutor, the Abbé d’Aulnoi, for it suggests that French possess a mercantile or unexamined system of belief. Arnold also cites this passage in his essay (178-9)
liberté, égalité, fraternité: Liberty, equality, brotherhood—the rallying cry of the French Revolution. The French Revolution is usually considered to begin with the storming of the Bastille in 1789, and to conclude with the institution of the five-member executive Directory in 1795. The Directory was overthrown by Napoleon I (1769-1821) [page 522] on November 9, 1799. Napoleon ruled France until the restoration of the Bourbon king Louis XVIII (1755-1824) in 1814, and briefly seized power in France from 20 March to 18 June 1815 (the so-called “hundred days”) before Louis XVIII was restored to the throne a second time.
July Revolution: The July 1830 uprising against the French King Charles X which took place after a series of political machinations and press restrictions instituted by Charles and his allies failed to restore monarchical powers to their pre-revolutionary strength. Charles X fled the July riots, and was replaced as king by Louis Phillipe, duc d’Orléans.
“He was a little active figure…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 314-5.
les jours de fête sont passé: The holidays have passed.
bêtise: Stupid thing.
l’[A]llemagne: In most editions of Heine’s works, this word is capitalized and thus means ‘Germany.’ Without a capital, it could also mean ‘a German’ (person).
Dessauer March: For music with this title, see “Dessauer March,” RISM A/II, 0000130481 [c. 1800] or “Marsch des Regiment von Anhalt Dessau,” RISM A/II, 000010791 [c. 1790].
“They gave themselves with devoted kindness…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 268.
“But how did I feel when I saw himself…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II 320-1.
et la prusse n’existait plus: and Prussia would no longer exist.
“The fat Bourbons came waddling back…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 333. The Bourbons, a large clan with numerous branches, were the reigning royal family in France from the time of Henry IV to the time of the July Revolution, when the Orléans branch of the family (who supported Louis Phillipe) ousted the Bourbon king Charles X.
“But now whenever I see the windmill of Sans Souci…”: French Affairs, Vol. VII, 27. The Frederic William in question is Frederic William III (1770-1840), ruler of Prussia. Frederic William’s army fought against Napoleon from 1813 to 1815, under the assurance that the country would receive a constitution. However, following the termination of hostilities, Frederic William joined the Holy Alliance of Russia, Austria and Prussia, and maintained a strong hold on the monarchy. Sans Souci (the name means ‘without care’) is the name of his Potsdam palace, built in 1745 by Frederick II. [page 523]
Frederic William’s ministers, Stein and Hardenberg: Scott refers to Heinrich Friedrich Karl Stein (1757-1831) and Prince Karl August von Hardenberg (1750-1822)
William the Victorious: The son of King Frederic William III, William I served as Emperor of Germany from 1871 to 1888; and as King of Prussia from 1861 to 1888.
Capuchins: Roman Catholic monks and nuns of a strict Franciscan order founded in 1528.
August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767-1845), was the brother of the German philosopher Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829), and, with him, founded the romantic journal Athenäeum (1798-1800). August Wilhelm Schlegel translated much of Shakespeare’s work into German; his brother Friedrich lectured in philosophy in Jena, Paris and Vienna.
Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769-1860), a German writer and academic known for his anti-Napoleonic stance, as expressed in his fervently pro-German nationalist 1806 to 1818 works entitled, Geist der Zeit [Spirit of the Times].
rusticated: Temporarily expelled from university.
“Londonderry cut his throat…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 324.
“I saw how Hegel, with his almost comically earnest face…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 255. George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831), German philosopher. Hegel’s thesis-antithesis-synthesis dialectic, his idealist assumption that one may come to know God through rational reflection, and his concept of philosophy as a historicized discourse remain influential in Western thought.
Varnhagen von Ense: Karl August Varnhagen von Ense (1785-1858), a German writer and friend of Heine. Through Varnhagen’s extensive epistolary circle of influence and his wife Rahel’s salons, Heine was able to meet many influential contemporary figures in arts and letters.
Ludwig Devrient (1784-1832): A German actor noted for his Shakespearean roles and for his translations of Shakespeare.
Test Act: The 1673 English Act of Parliament excluding those persons who did not participate in Church of England communion rites from public office. The Test Act effectually barred Roman Catholics, Jews, and Protestant non-conformists from attaining civil and military power until 1828, when the act was repealed. [page 524]
“As Henri 4 once said ‘Paris vaut bien une messe’…Berlin vaut bien un prîche”: Henry IV once said, “Paris is well worth a mass”; Heine counters with “Berlin is well worth a sermon.” See Confessions, Ellis 309.
“My forefathers belonged to the Jewish race…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. III, 308.
Immermann: Karl Leberecht Immermann (1796-1840) was a German novelist and literary critic. Immermann reviewed Heine’s first book, Gedichte, in Rheinisch-Westphalischen Anzeiger in 1821.
“Goethe said to Eckermann—’It is not to be denied…’”: Eckermann records this conversation in his journal entry of Sunday 25 December 1825. See J.W. Goethe: Conversations with Eckermann (1823-1832), Trans. John Oxenford (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1984), 99-100. Arnold paraphrases this example (192).
“Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not love, I am become as sounding brass and as a clanging cymbal”: I Corinthians 13:1.
“forty volumes of musical wisdom”: A reference to Goethe’s Faust.
“C’est une folie, à nuelle autre seconde / Que vouloir se mêler de corriger le monde”: These lines occur in Molière’s 1666 play, Le Misanthrope. See Oeuvres completes, E. Despois, ed. (Paris: Hachette, 1873), 452. Jean Baptiste Poquelin (1622-1673), better known as Molière, wrote and acted in numerous plays in Paris, the French provinces, and before Louis XIV. His works include such well-loved satirical comedies as L’Ecole des femmes (1662), L’Avare (1668), and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (1670).
“His appearance was significant…”: “The Romantic School,” Germany, Vol. V, 311.
Donnybrook Fair: A fair held in the outskirts of Dublin, Ireland from 1204 to 1867, famous for its fights, both inside and outside the ring.
“Koran…the angel Israfel, whose heartstrings are a lute”: The angel Israfil is not mentioned by name in the Qur’an itself; Scott must be referring to an unknown contemporary edition which combines learned commentary with the text. Israfil was the angel responsible for holding the fourth corner of God’s throne upon his shoulder. Israfil also appears in a poem of that title by Thompson—see Scott’s “Review, John Stuart Thompson, A Day’s Song.”
Prince Metternich: Clemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich (1773-1859), was an Austrian nobleman who represented [page 525] Austria in France in 1806. His “gray” diplomatic position, as Scott terms it, evolved from this apparent support of Napoleon to outright military action against France in 1813.
“late great dean of Westminster”: Given the date of Scott’s address, the dean alluded to is most likely Arthur Penrhyn Stanley (1815-1881), a Rugby and Oxford-educated cleric who was appointed dean of Westminster in 1864. Stanley’s sermons were widely published, but he was better known as the editor and compiler of The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold, D.D. (1844).
“‘My child, while yet a little boy…’”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 111. Arnold also cites this passage (181-2).
The “little poem” about the Princess Ilse: The text of the poem does not appear in Scott’s manuscript, but it has been inserted, as it is likely that he simply read aloud from his edition of Heine for the purposes of this address. Ilse is both a river, and an enchanted river maiden. Those wanderers who happen upon Ilse while she is bathing in the river will be led into her magic castle and handsomely rewarded. See Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 156-7.
“Many great men have trod this earth…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 252-3.
“‘Herr Doctor, what do you think of Goethe?’”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. II, 228-9.
“Christ sits there, in the midst of his disciples…”: Pictures of Travel, Vol. III, 281-2.
“A new race will blossom forth…”: Book Le Grande, Snodgrass 10.
“I really know not whether I deserve…”: Pictures of Travel, Snodgrass 44-5.
Blücher: Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742-1819) was a Prussian general, who became prince of Wahlstadt by order of Frederic William III for his offensive drive into Paris, the heart of Napoleon’s empire. Blücher then assisted the allies, led by the Duke of Wellington, in their victory over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo.
Mendelssohn: Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (1809-1847) was a German composer of chamber and symphonic music, whose best-known works include the incidental music to A Midsummer Night’s Dream and the symphonic poem The Hebrides.
Schubert: Franz Peter Schubert (1797-1828) was an Austrian composer, most noted for his dramatic song cycles, including Die schöne Mullerin and Winterreise, and for his chamber music, such as the [page 526] ‘Trout’ Quintet, although he also composed numerous works for piano, orchestra, and chorus. Schubert set some of Heine’s poems.
Schumann: Robert Alexander Schumann (1810-1856) was a German composer and music critic, most famous for his songs and his compositions for piano. Schumann’s Dichterliebe song cycle sets Heine’s poems; Schumann also set part of Goethe’s Faust to music.
“‘The born lover of ideas’ said Matthew Arnold…”: See Arnold’s essay, “Heinrich Heine,” 165.
Arnold’s words about the British constitution, “a grand machine for the manufacture of the Philistines”: The full quotation reads: “Where shall we find language innocent enough, how shall we make the spotless purity of our intentions evident enough, to enable us to say to the political Englishman that the British Constitution itself, which, seen from the practical side, looks such a magnificent organ of progress and virtue, seen from the speculative side,—with its compromises, its love of facts, its horror of theory, its studied avoidance of clear thoughts, —that, seen from this side, our august Constitution sometimes looks, —forgive me, shade of Lord Somers! —a colossal machine for the manufacture of Philistines?” See Matthew Arnold’s “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time.” Essays in Criticism (London, Cambridge: Macmillan, 1865), 26.
“There is balm in Philistia as well as in Gilead…”: Arnold, “Heinrich Heine,” 166.
“I ran about the house like a madman…”: This excerpt appears in Heine’s Ludwig Börne: Recollections of a Revolutionist, Trans. Thomas Selby Egan (London: Newman, 1881), 75.
Eckermann’s words, “The news of the revolution first began in Paris…”: Scott errs in attributing this conversation with Goethe to Eckermann. In fact, it is Soret who visits Goethe on August 2, 1830, and talks at “cross-purposes” with him. See P. Hume Brown’s 1920 Life of Goethe, Vol. II (NY: Haskell House, 1971), 653-5.
the Academy: The Académie Française is a forty-member French literary academy, founded by Richilieu in 1635, which continues to exert a conservative influence on French language and letters.
“Not for itself, from time immemorial…”: Ludwig Börne, 92-3.
“The sky was so blue…”: Confessions, Ellis 296-7. There should be an ellipsis between the sentence ending “rubbed out” and the sentence beginning “My soul,” as these passages are not contiguous.
passage de l’opera: a street or alleyway near the opera house. [page 527]
“Meissner says of her, ‘Mathilde’s disposition…’”: For Alfred Meissner’s comments on Heine’s wife, see Heinrich Heine: Erinnerungen (Hamburg: Hoffmann und Campe, 1856).
“When we can make the people understand…”: Preface, French Affairs, Vol. VII, 10.
“sounding times of Great Elizabeth”: Florentine Nights, Vol. I, 251.
res publica: A public thing.
“The kings are going…”: Florentine Nights, Vol. I, 251.
“We will gladly sacrifice ourselves…”: Confessions, Ellis 302.
“The thought precedes the deed…”: On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany. See Heinrich Heine: Selected Prose, Trans. Ritchie Robertson (London: Penguin, 1993), 293-4.
“Poor Robespierre!”: “The Citizen Monarchy,” Snodgrass 167. Maximilien Marie Isidore Robespierre (1758-1794) was a French lawyer who became leader of the Jacobin Club during the French Revolution. Through his participation in a number of revolutionary government committees, he brought the king, the Girondists, and other aristocrats and leaders of rival factions to the guillotine, and at last met death there himself.
“I remember well that on my arrival…”: Lutetia, French Affairs, Vol. VIII, 181.
“I already hear the very voices…”: See Heine’s note to “Germany—A Winter’s Tale” in The Complete Poems of Heinrich Heine: A Modern English Version, Hal Draper, ed. (Boston: Suhkarmp/Insel, 1982), 481-2.
Alsace and Lorraine: A geographical area between Germany and France, bordered by the Rhine and Moselle rivers and the Vosges mountains. Alsace and Lorraine, Frnech provinces from the seventeenth century, were ceded to Germany in 1871, and returned to France in 1919.
trottoirs: Literally, pavements; to faire le trottoire is to walk the streets.
grisette: A word with shades of meaning, varying from a low-class milliner with a taste for fun to a prostitute with a fondness for alcohol.
boulevardière: A man about town.
“Since I needed the mercy of God…”: A passage similar to this occurs in the Confessions, Ellis 304-6.
“The reawakening of my religious sentiment…”: Confessions, Snodgrass, 258. [page 528]
Uncle Tom: title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1851-2 novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Tom is a prayerful black slave from a Kentucky plantation who seeks freedom in Canada, but who is ultimately killed by the villainous slave trader Simon Legree. Heine admired and reviewed Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
“What a giant form…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 256.
“I see now that the Greeks…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 257.
“Moses would not do away with property…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 265.
“As people say, I have done nothing…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 268-9.
Dr. Bürger: Gottfried August Bürger (1747-1794) was a poet and a professor of philosophy at Göttingen University, perhaps best known for his ballad “Lenore.”
“Like Romeo, I am the fool of fortune…”: Confessions, Snodgrass 269-70.
“Soyez tranquille. Dieu me pardonnera, c’est son métier”: Heine’s dying words, loosely translated: “Be at ease. God will pardon me, that’s his job.”
Open Letter to a Member of Parliament
Scott published this letter in The Ottawa Evening Journal (Tuesday, February 21, 1893) under the pseudonym of Silas Reading. Much of it was reprinted in The Civil Service Review 1:1 (1 March 1893): 3-4, under the heading of “Severe Criticism” and with these introductory remarks: “The editorial column of the Ottawa Evening Citizen on Tuesday, February 21 is given up to an ‘open letter addressed to a member of Parliament’ which contains some very plain speaking indeed. The truth is told in many of its paragraphs, but unfortunately it will probably lose some of its force from having been told by some one writing under an assumed name” (3). The first number of the Review is so much taken up with the question of the proposed revisions to the Civil Service Act that it might seem to have been founded to oppose the measure, and perhaps the timing of the first number is significant, but the editor says that the magazine was conceived in response to civil service grievances of a year earlier. Introducing the provisions of Hon. John Costigan’s new act, the editor draws the attention of his readers to Section 16, which establishes [page 529] an expanded workday, a decreased lunch break and Big Brother-like monitoring of all this, remarking that it “seems more fitted to a public school than to the service of a growing country” (5).
Bill 27, the Bill to Amend the Civil Service Superannuation Act, was proposed by the secretary of state of the Thompson ministry, the Hon. John Costigan, and tabled by George Eulas Foster, Minister of Finance, in March of 1893. As Scott suggests, the issues of civil service salaries and superannuation were popular targets for politicians keen to demonstrate their fiscal responsibility, and amendments to the Superannuation Act continued throughout the 1890’s until it was abolished in 1898.
“new block”: The building which Scott refers to as the “new block,” is the Langevin Block, constructed between 1886 and 1890, and occupied by the Departments of Indian Affairs, Agriculture, and by the Post Office.
Dante: The “lugubrious words which greeted Dante and Virgil” above the gate of Hell read, “All hope abandon, ye who enter here.” Scott’s quotation is probably taken from the Rev. H.F. Cary’s translation of Dante’s Divine Comedy, published by J.M. Dent and Sons for the Everyman’s Library Edition in 1908.
“franking”: Stamping a letter with a mark to indicate that postage has been paid.
[The Future of Canadian Literature]
Published in The Week (16 March 1894): 369, this piece was one of several solicited by L.E. Horning “while preparing the programme for the Canadian Literature Evening, held at Victoria University, Toronto, on Feb. 9, 1894,” The Week (9 March 1894): 344. On March 9, Horning had presented responses by Charles Mair and (on French literature in Canada) J.M. LeMoine. The other March 16 writers were J.G. Bourinot and William Wilfred Campbell. [page 530]
Canadian Feeling Toward the United States
Scott’s article, published in The Bookman (June 1896): 333-6, is a direct response to an earlier piece by Harry Thurston Peck (1856-1914), “American Feeling toward England,” printed in The Bookman, 3:2 (April 1896). Peck, a professor at Columbia University, also served as editor-in-chief of this literary journal from its inception in 1895 to 1902, and continued as a contributing editor until 1907. The reference to Americans “whose nationality is inherited from many generations of Anglo-Saxon ancestors” derives from page 123 of this article, as does the allusion to the Battle of Dorking (125), and the idea that Americans love England “with a fervour and a passion of which no Englishman has any conception” (124). Peck later wrote Twenty Years of the Republic, a history of U.S. politics at this time, expressing hostile opinions of Grover Cleveland.
Sir R.F. Burton: Scott alludes to the African explorer, writer and linguist Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890), infamous in his own time for this translation of the Kama Sutra. Burton, a inveterate traveller and author of over thirty lively travelogues, spent a very short period in the Maritimes on his way to study the Mormon settlement at Salt Lake City, Utah. Scott may be alluding to Burton’s remark, “They are a queer lot, these French Canadians, who have ‘located’ themselves in the Far West. Travelers who have hunted with them speak highly of them as a patient, submissive, and obident race, inured to privations…I can only speak of him as I found him, a lazy dog, somewhat shy and proud, much addicted to loafing…” See Burton’s 1861 The City of the Saints, and Across the Rocky Mountains to California (Boulder: U of Colorado), 152.
The “leading Canadian weekly” which adopted the principles of the “proposal for Imperial defence debated in the present sessions of the Dominion Parliament”: It is difficult to ascertain which Canadian government and which sessions of Parliament Scott refers to in this article because of the unusually swift series of political changes at this time. The ill-fated government of Sir Charles Tupper, which succeeded Mackenzie Bowell’s administration, lasted only from May of 1896 until June (the publication date of Scott’s article), when it was replaced by Wilfrid Laurier’s Liberals. The periodical in question is most likely the Toronto-based The [page 531] Week, a literary and political magazine similar in scope to Harper’s which promoted an imperialist, sentimental notion of Canadian nationalism, and which often published poems by Scott.
President Cleveland’s message for Canadians which dispelled the “cloud of annexation”: Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) was a Democrat who served as President of the United States from 1885 to 1889 and from 1893 to 1897. Major issues during his terms of office included the reform of the civil service, an 1894 railway strike, and the Venezuela Boundary Dispute, which Peck’s article in The Bookman mentions.
Scott uses the word “warmth” to connote the “angry” rather than “favourable” Canadian reception of Cleveland’s tariff policies, but acknowledges their positive effects upon emergent notions of Canadian federalism. The history of political and cultural nationalism in Canada is inextricably linked to Canada-U.S. trade policies. An annexation movement had begun in Canada after 1849, but died down after the 1854 Reciprocity Treaty. Sir John A. Macdonald’s “National Policy” of protective tariffs, instituted in 1879, once again caused friction over trade. Grover Cleveland responded to protective tariffs concerning U.S. fishing rights by introducing a “Retaliation Bill” in 1887, which would allow the U.S. to exclude Canadian fishing vessels and related goods from U.S. ports. The Bill passes through the House but was shelved by the U.S. Senate.
However, not only issues of trade, but more specifically, the U.S.-Britain boundary dispute over Venezuela caused the surge in nationalism that Scott details. In 1895, Richard Olney and Grover Cleveland sent a note to the British Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, suggesting that “any permanent political union between an European and an American state [is] unnatural and inexpedient,” that “the United States is practically sovereign on this continent, and its fiat is law upon the subjects to which it confines its interposition,” a note which was then followed by Cleveland’s “Venezuelan message” of December 17. Cleveland’s invocation of the United States’ policy of manifest destiny on this occasion held obvious implications for Canada. See Allan Nevins’ Grover Cleveland: a Study in Courage (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1933), pages 633-48 and 410-3, for further information.
In describing the ideological shift away from annexation, Scott neglects to mention that many contemporary Canadians, including newspaper editor Edward Farer, who had ties to the Laurier administration [page 532], and Dr. Goldwin Smith, advocated American annexation rather than continued colonial affiliation with Britain.
The rhetoric of tariffs and annexation quickly crossed over from the political into the literary arena. Pelham Edgar’s short review of Scott’s 1893 The Magic House and Other Poems in the 15 March 1895 (Vol. 12) issue of The Week, for instance, deplores the “narrow provincialism” of “distinctively Canadian poetry” and notes that “there are no tariff restrictions upon our thought.”
manifest destiny: The term referring to the inevitable territorial expansion of the United States, first used by journalist John Louis O’Sullivan in support of the annexation of Texas, but later applied to territories adjacent to the United States, including the part of British North America now known as Canada. Scott seeks to reinvent the term by applying it to Canada’s emergent nationalism—a nationalism which rests on an assumption of continued colonial relations with Britain.
“the little man in Stephen Crane’s Lines”: Scott refers to poem number 22 in Stephen Crane’s The Black Riders and Other Lines (1895):
Once I saw mountains angry,
And ranged in battle-front.
Against them stood a little man;
Aye, he was no bigger than my finger.
I laughed, and spoke to one near me:
“Will he prevail?”
“Surely,” replied this other;
“His grandfathers beat them many times.”
Then did I see much virtue in grandfathers,—
At least, for the little man
Who stood against the mountains.
Stanstead, Quebec: The town in which Scott attended college (high school). The name Missiquoi refers the Baie Missiquoi, a bay on Lake Champlain, which spans the border between Quebec and Vermont. The counties of Charlotte and York are located in New Brunswick.
“‘[But] you won’t get away from the tune that they play [/] [T]o the bloomin’ old rag over ‘ead’”: Scott quotes lines 38-9 of Rudyard Kipling’s poem, “The Widow at Windsor.”
Sir John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) was a former lawyer who served as Prime Minister of Canada from 1867 to 1873, and from [page 533] 1878-1891. Macdonald is perhaps most notable for his roles in Confederation, in bringing Manitoba and British Columbia into the new Dominion of Canada, and in procuring financing for the Canadian Pacific Railway. See the notes to Scott’s “Lord Strathcona” for explanation of Macdonald’s involvement in the Pacific Scandal.
zollverein: Used in this context, the word indicates an agreement on trade tariffs—or the lack thereof—between Britain and her economic partners (from the German zoll meaning customs, duty, toll).
Colonial conference, Chamberlain’s proposal: Joseph Chamberlain (18336-1914), father of Neville Chamberlain (British prime minister from 1937-1940), acted as British Secretary for the Colonies from 1895 to 1903. Chamberlain proposed giving preferential treatment to imports from British colonies and advocated measures which would provide protection for British manufactured goods. The Colonial conference took place in Ottawa during the summer of 1894. For a useful summary of the nationalist debate stirred by the conference, see G.M. Grant’s related article, “The Colonial Conference and Dr. Goldwin Smith” in The Week, 12:9 (25 January 1895): 199-201.
Review of John Stuart Thomson, A Day’s Song
Scott’s review was published in The Canadian Magazine 16 (Nove. 1900-April 1901): 271-2.
John Stuart Thomson: Thomson (1869-1950) began his writing career as a poet, and later became interested in the social problems facing the Chinese people, including the revolution of 1911-2, and wrote two books on the subject: The Chinese (1909), and China Revolutionized (1913), both published in Indianapolis by Bobbs-Merill. Estabelle and other verse, the poetic collection mentioned by Scott, was published in 1897 by W. Briggs of Toronto. The same firm printed A Day’s Song in 1900.
Bridges: Robert Seymour Bridges (1844-1930), the late Victorian English poet and literary critic, was named Poet Laureate in 1913. A trained doctor, Bridges retired from medicine after only eight years of practice in order to pursue a writing career. He had a considerable interest in design and typography, and designed the layout of many of his own volumes of poetry. Bridges experiments with [page 534] sprung rhythm, simplified phonetic spellings, and verse drama, but is best remembered for his short lyric poems, and for his critical essays on Keats, Shakespeare and Milton.
Elizabeth I: Elizabeth Tudor, daughter of King Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn, was a dynamic and learned monarch. Known as the Virgin Queen for her persistent refusal to marry, Elizabeth ruled England from the death of her sister, Mary I, in 1558, until her own death in 1603. During her reign, Elizabeth re-established the Protestant Church of England as the state religion; promoted policies which encouraged exploration and increased domestic and foreign trade; made peace with France; executed her cousin, Mary Queen of Scots, whose claim to the throne and assassination plots threatened Elizabeth’s rule; and defeated the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth I died without issue, and was succeeded by James I, first of the Stuart line of kings.
Carew: Thomas Carew (c. 1594-1640), was a poet and cavalier courtier connected with the courts of King James I and King Charles I. Carew, most noted for his lyric poems addressed “to Celia,” and for the scandalous erotic poem, “A Rapture,” also penned a court masque entitled Coelum Britannicum (1634), and wrote a moving elegy for poet John Donne.
Campion: Thomas Campion (1567-1620), a politically and intellectually versatile poet, literary theorist and composer, associated with the court of King James I. Campion’s works include four court masques, several collections of “ayres” for voice and lute, Latin verses, and learned works on poetic and musical composition, including his Observations in the Art of English Poesie (1602) and A New Way of Making Fowre parts in Counter-point (c. 1617).
Fletcher: John Fletcher (1579-1625), a Jacobean playwright and poet, collaborated with Francis Beaumont (1584-1616) on approximately twelve witty tragicomedies for the stage, including A King and no King (c. 1611) and Philaster, or Love Lies a-Bleeding (1609). With William Shakespeare and Philip Massinger, he also collaborated on plays for the King’s Men acting company, and he composed numerous solo productions.
Jonson: Ben Jonson (c. 1572-1637), was an English playwright, actor and poet. Jonson, a former bricklayer and soldier with little formal education, began writing comic (Every Man in His Humour, c. 1598), satiric (Volpone, 1606), and tragic (Sejanus, c. 1603) plays for acting companies including the Lord Chamberlain’s Men and the Children [page 535] of the Chapel during the reign of Elizabeth I. He subsequently found favour in the court of James I, where he wrote several masques which were performed by and for courtiers. Jonson’s witty circle of friends often met in the Mermaid Tavern; a circumstance which may have inspired the title of Scott’s, Lampman’s and Wilfred Campbell’s 1892-3 literary column for The Globe, “At the Mermaid Inn.” Scott frequently mispells the poet’s name as “Johnson.”
Poe: Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), an American short-story writer, poet, and literary critic. Poe, whose mournful narrative poems “The Raven” (1845) and “Annabel Lee” (1849) are frequently anthologized, is best known for the edgy diction and tight form of his short stories, traits manifest in his horrifying tales, “The Pit and the Pendulum” (1842) and “The Cask of Amontillado” (1846).
Memoir, The Poems of Archibald Lampman
“Alcyone was being printed in Edinburgh by Constable and was well under way; it was being done at Mr. Lampman’s risk. Of course when he passed away so suddenly it confused the arrangements and I had no hesitation to cancel the work. The desirability of having a Complete Edition seemed to me evident, and the time propitious.” So Scott wrote to Pelham Edgar on 4 March, 1899, about Lampman’s Poems, which Scott edited and to which he contributed this memoir. Scott and Lampman were close friends and literary collaborators. The depth of Scott’s affection for his friend lasted for nearly fifty more years. The Poems of Archibald Lampman was published in Toronto by Morang in 1900, 1901, and 1905.
Charles G.D. Roberts: Sir Charles George Douglas Roberts (1869-1943), served as editor of The Week, a literary weekly published in Toronto from 1883 to 1896. Roberts was a professor of English at King’s College, Windsor for ten years, and served with the Canadian army during World War I. After lengthy stays abroad in New York and England, Roberts returned to Canada in 1925. Over the course of his prolific career, he wrote fifteen volumes of poetry, including Orion, and other poems (1880) and The vagrant of time (1927); he also penned numerous historical novels, such as A sister to Evangeline (1898) and The Backwoodsmen (1909). Like Scott, Roberts [page 537] was a member of the Royal Society of Canada, and in 1926, he was awarded the Society’s first Lorne Pierce medal for his contributions to Canadian literature.
Royal Society of Canada: A society formed on May 25, 1883 by the Marques of Lorne, Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883. According to the Act of Incorporation and By-Laws of the Royal Society of Canada, the Society is dedicated to encouraging “studies an investigations in literature and science,” publishing “original papers and memoirs of merit,” offering prizes to aid research “on subjects relating to Canada,” and to collecting specimens “with a view to the formation of a Canadian Museum.”
The Ring and the Book: A poem by Robert Browning, published in London by Smith, Elder, 1868-9.
“Isaac Walton reports of the behaviour of that admirable poet Dr. John Donne ‘which when it would entice had a strange kind of elegant, irresistible art’”: Scott quotes Izaak Walton’s Life of Dr. John Donne, first published in 1640. Scott’s reference is oddly out of tune with the panegyrical tone of his memoir, considering the original context of the quotation. Walton’s words suggest that despite Donne’s merits and “winning behaviour (which when it would intice, had a strange kind of elegant irresistible art),” he could not placate his estranged father-in-law after he eloped with Anne Moor. His behaviour is appealing, but inconsistent (“when it would intice”) and even ineffective. Walton (1593-1683) is probably better known as the author of The Compleat Angler, but he also wrote biographies of Sir Henry Wotton, Richard Hooker, and George Herbert.
A Decade of Canadian Poetry
This essay appeared in The Canadian Magazine 17 (1901): 153-8, and in Twentieth Century Essays on Canadian Literature. Lorraine McMullen, ed. (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1976). Scott says that he has taken “a very moderate tone” in his essay (to Pelham Edgar, 25 April 1901), not that he ever took any other sort of tone in an essay. He was contributing to the centennial number (the one hundredth issue) of The Canadian Magazine, along with Arthur H.V. Colquhoun (“A Century of Canadian Magazines”), L.E. Horning (“A Decade of Canadian Prose”), M.L. Fairbairn (“A Decade of Canadian Art”), [page 537] George Stewart (“Literary Reminiscences”) and J. Gordon Mowart (“The Purpose of a National Magazine”), who writes as follows:
A truly national magazine, broad, comprehensive, thoughtful, bright in its utility to a nation is scarcely second to a great university. Its mission is to stimulate and afford expression to the higher thought and tastes of a people, to bring the country’s best thought, under the most favourable circumstances and in the most attractive form, before the best classes of the country’s readers—the classes upon whom the shaping of the political, social, intellectual and even industrial future of the nation must largely depend. (166)
Songs of the Common Day and Ave! an Ode for the Shelley Centenary (1893): As Scott intimates, the preface to Charles G.D. Roberts’ 1893 volume of poetry refers to the completion of a series of sonnets. Roberts writes: “By the kind courtesy of Messrs. D. Lothrop Company, I am permitted to reprint in this collection seven sonnets from my volume entitled ‘In Divers Tones.’ This is done to complete the series of sonnets dealing with aspects of common outdoor life….The Ode for the Centenary of Shelley’s Birth was first published by the Williamson Book Company, of Toronto, in December 1892, in a limited edition of two hundred copies.”
W.H. Drummond’s The Habitant (1897), does not contain a poem or a character with the name of “Jacques Bonhomme.” Jacques is a common name, and “bonhomme,” which literally translates as “good man,” also refers to the idea of “a figure”; Scott may be using this epithet to suggest that Drummond’s poems—which are written in a heavily-accented French-Canadian dialect—capture the spirit of the average Québecois. Drummon’s poem, “The Wreck of the ‘Julie Plante’: A Legend of Lac St. Pierre” is written in this idiom, and appears in The Habitant and other French-Canadian Poems (NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1897), 8-10.
Scott’s volume of poetry, The Magic House was published in 1893, not 1895.
William Dean Howells: Howells (1837-1920), the editor of Harper’s, commends Archibald Lampman’s book of poems, Among the Millet, in the column “Editor’s Study,” Harper’s 78 (April 1889): 821-3. Howell’s an American, was a prolific writer; in addition to his work at Harper’s and the Atlantic Monthly, he also published several volumes of literary criticism, including Criticism and Fiction (1891), as well as novels, plays and travelogues. [page 538]
Edmund Clarence Stedman: Stedman (1833-1908), combined his poetic career with more steady work in banking. His anthology, A Victorian Anthology 1837-1895: Selections Illustrating the Editor’s Critical Review of British Poetry in the Reign of Victoria (NY: Houghton, Mifflin, 1895), contains works from a number of poets from the “Dominion of Canada,” including nine poems by Scott. The others represented in the volume are: Susanna Strickland Moodie, Charles Dawson Shanly, Charles Heavysege, John Hunter-Dunbar, Charles Mair, John E. Logan, George Murray, George Frederick Cameron, Charles G.D. Roberts, William Wilfred Campbell, Frederick George Scott, Elizabeth Gostwyke Roberts, Archibald Lampman, Bliss Carman, S. Frances Harrison (Seranus), Gilbert Parker, E. Pauline Johnson, Arthur Weir, and Ethelwyn Wetherald.
the Canadian School of Poetry: Scott probably means Canadian poetry as a whole, and no particularly branch of it. Even the Confederation poets were never a “school,” as such, and as such they were not known in 1901.
This essay was published in Ainslee’s Magazine 8 (1901-2): 552-60. Scott had met Lord Strathcona and inquired about his life being recounted in a volume of the Makers of Canada series that Scott and Pelham Edgar were editing. He “didn’t seem to care for the idea,” Scott wrote (to Pelham Edgar, 27 September, 1901) “but said he would look up his papers and let me know.” Volume 10 of the second edition of The Makers (1916), revised under new editorship, is devoted to Lord Strathcona and Sir William Van Horne.
Trader, Chief Trader, Factor, Chief Factor, Resident Governor: Job titles for various postings in the Hudson’s Bay Company, in ascending order of responsibility and salary. Traders engaged in goods-for-fur exchanges with natives on an individual basis at the Company’s fur trading posts or “factories.” Among the most popular trade goods were iron kettles, muskets, and blankets. At each factory, Traders were supervised by a Factor, who was authorized to set prices for trade goods according to local circumstances, and who was ultimately responsible to the Company for the annual [page 539] trade realized at each post. Contracts for such positions normally extended from three to four years, and in addition to the salary, after 1813, men occupying these positions in the Hudson’s Bay Company received a percentage of the profits from the local factory as an added incentive to trade.
the words of the old buccaneer “Brains will beat grim death if we have enough of them”: See Scott’s essay, “George Meredith, the Dean of English Novelists.”
Boer War (1899-1902): “Boers” are South Africans of Dutch ancestry; the word “Boer” means farmer. Britain’s hostilities against the Boer republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State began with the discovery of gold in 1884, when thousands of British speculators and miners came to settle in the Witwatersrand, an area which overlapped the Transvaal. The angry Boers denied the British “Uitlanders” (outlanders or foreigners) voting rights. Relations between the two parties further deteriorated with Cecil Rhodes’ petition to Britain to secure all of the South African colonies for the Crown, and Rhodes’ subsequent support of Leander Jameson’s revolt against the Boers, which saw 600 British soldiers march into the Transvaal. Britain refused to Boers’ request for formal arbitration and withdrawal of these troops, and war was declared. Canada’s involvement in the Boer War was the source of much political debate. Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier was well aware that the province of Quebec would object to participation in a war to protect British commerce and claims to empire, and that the Opposition would capitalize on this resistance; at the same time, he had to contend with the machinations of a power-hungry Governor-General (the Earl of Minto) who supported Britain’s request for troops, and Major General Edward Hutton, who viewed the war as an opportunity to renew the Canadian Army’s declining political influence. Strathcona’s remark, “Had I any doubts as to the justice of our cause (the Boer War) I should never have fitted out the Strathcona Hore,” and his role as High Commissioner to Britain seem to place him squarely on the side of Minto and Hutton, and of Canada’s colonial obligations to Britain. However, his offer to outfit the Strathcona Horse was in fact a brilliant political compromise, for though the regiment was privately raised, it received the sanction of Parliament and the approval of Britain’s Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, thus giving the appearance of Canadian support without necessitating formal legislation. [page 540]
Lord Strathcona’s Horse: The original company of the Strathcona Horse (including commanding officer Sam Steele) was composed of members from the northwest. The regiment subsequently served in World War I as Lord Strathcona’s Horse (Royal Canadians); and in World War II, as part of the 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade. The song quoted by Scott is not the official march of the Strathcona Horse, and its composer and publisher are unknown to either the present-day regimental museum or the Canadian War Museum.
peerage fixed in the female line: Donald A. Smith and Isabella Hardisty Smith had only one child, a daughter, Margaret Smith Howard. However, Isabella had a son (James Hardisty) from a previous marriage whom Smith had informally adopted, and who had taken the surname Smith. Fixing the Barony of Strathcona and Mount Royal in the female line, although an unusual concession to British tradition, was thus deemed desirable by Smith himself to avoid the title passing out of his direct bloodline, and he deferred acceptance of the title until this condition was met. At the time that the barony was awarded, Maggie Howard had several children, which would assure the perpetuity of the title. The name of the new barony and its coat of arms were both created by Smith.
For a roughly contemporary biography of Strathcona which shares much in common with Scott’s views, see Rev. J.W. Pedley’s Biography of Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal (Toronto: J.L. Nichols, 1915). Pedley, like Scott, quotes Smith’s speech of November 5, 1873: “For the honour of the country no government should exist that has a shadow of suspicion resting upon it, and for that reason I cannot give it my support” (80, 104). For Smith, a loyal Tory, to speak out in this fashion against the Conservative prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, was astonishing. His cause for speaking out was the incident which became known as the Pacific Scandal. Sir Hugh Allan, a wealthy bidder for the Canadian Pacific Railway line, had made large contributions to Macdonald’s election campaign; later, Allan had also made written guarantees of large sums of money to Macdonald, Sir George-Etienne Cartier, and Hector Langevin (the Minister of Public Works), apparently in exchange for receipt of the railway contract. Sir John A. Macdonald resigned the day after Smith’s speech, and a national election was called for February 1874. [page 541]
Strathcona was one of three “men of influence to inquire into the causes” of the Riel rebellion and he “held the recalcitrant race in check until Wolseley arrived”: In 1869, the government appointed Smith a Special Commissioner to authorize him to inquire into affairs at Red River, where two other “men of influence,” the Governor of Assiniboia, William Mactavish, and William McDougall, Minister of Public Works, had already attempted negotiations with Métis leader Louis Riel (1844-1885). Riel had issued a proclamation refusing to accept the Hudson Bay Company’s November 1869 surrender of the North-West territories to the Dominion of Canada and had taken several political prisoners, one of whom, Thomas Scott, was executed. Smith persuaded Riel and his provisional government to send delegates to Ottawa to negotiate their entry into Confederation. However, in the summer of 1870, Colonel Garnet Wolseley (1833-1913) led a police force of approximately 1200 men to take Fort Garry from Riel—hardly the “handful of volunteers” Scott describes. Riel, who took refuge in the United States after the failure of his first political action, returned to lead a second rebellion, and was hanged for treason in 1885.
The Last of the Indian Treaties
Illustrated with photographs taken mostly by Scott on the 1905 lap of his two summers concluding Treaty 9 with the Cree and Ojibway of Northern Ontario, this essay was published in Scribner’s 40 (1906): 573-83. It was reprinted in Scott’s The Circle of Affection and other Pieces in Prose and Verse (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1947).
“reserve”: A reserve is defined in the Indian Act (1985) as “a tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band” (Indian Act RSC 1985, c. 1-5, s. 2). The reserve system considers Indian bands to be wards of Her Majesty, and thus they do not hold title to these lands; the monarch holds the lands in trust for the bands. However, the Indian Act is built on the assumption that these lands were “surrendered” (Indian Oil and Gas Act RSC 1989 c.1-7, s. 2), which implies that the lands did originally hold a recognized title. [page 542]
At the time Scott wrote this essay, the definition of “reserve” was even more complex: reserve lands vested in the Crown could be considered to be unsurrendered (43 Victoria (1880) Cap. 28 (Canada), C10, s.6); they could be defined as a “special reserve,” wherein the land title is “vested in a society, corporation or community legally established, and capable of suing and being sued, or in a person of persons of European descent, but which land is held in trust for such band or irregular band of Indians” (43 Victoria (1880) Cap. 28 (Canada), C10, s.7); or, under section 8 of the same bill, they could be designated “Indian lands,” a category which defined lands surrendered to the Crown. (The term “irregular band” refers to Indians who “own no interest in any reserve or lands of which the legal title is vested in the Crown, who possess no common fund managed by the Government of Canada, or who have not hand any treaty relations with the Crown.”) Since the lands were not owned by the bands, but held in trust, Indians were forbidden to sell or cede reserve lands—except to the federal or provincial governments, which could seize lands for the purposes of “settlement, mining, lumbering, or other purposes” (54 Victoria (1891) Cap. 3 (Ontario), s. 1.1). This provision may explain Scott’s reference to “the pronouncement on the Indian tenure.” In addition, the question of who was entitled to reserve lands was much more closely tied to legal definitions of Indian identity than is now the case. The definition of “reserve” and the question of title to reserves and to other “Indian lands,” and many other sections of the Indian Act are currently under revision.
Joseph Brant (Thayendanega): Joseph Brant (1742-1807), was a respected leader of the Mohawk nation, and of the Six Nations Confederacy. Equally remarkable in war and peace, Brant translated the Church of England’s Book of Common Prayer, and much of the New Testament into Mohawk; as a military leader, he provided substantial reinforcement to the British during the French and Indian War and the American Revolution. Brant served as secretary to Guy Johnson, then superintendent of Indian Affairs. See Scott’s “Indian Affairs, 1763-1841” for further insights into his view of Brant’s achievement, and his relationships with both Guy and Sir William Johnson.
“the new transcontinental”: The railway that became the Canadian Pacific Railroad, or CPR. [page 543]
“Dominion Police Force”: The North-West Mounted Police, first formed in 1873, to police violence, thievery, and smuggling in areas west of the Red River. The force subsequently became known as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or RCMP.
“Caleb who went to spy out the land for the children of Israel”: See Numbers, chapters 13 and 14, for an account of Caleb’s mission.
“elaborate negotiations between a dominion and a province”: See Scott’s essay, “Indian Affairs, 1763-1841” and Stan Dragland’s Floating Voice: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Literature of Treaty 9, 21-2, for a detailed discussion of these negotiations.
Jenner: Edward Jenner (1749-1823), was the English doctor whose experiments in vaccination led to the increased control of diseases such as smallpox.
the King: King Edward VII (1841-1910), the eldest son of Queen Victoria, ruled Britain and its colonies from 1901 to 1910.
“As long as the sun shines and the water runs”: This phrase, used by lieutenant-governor of Manitoba Alexander Morris in treaty negotiations, was also employed by Ojibway chief Mawe-do-penais in negotiations concerning Treaty 3; this treaty was to last “as long as the sun goes round and the water flows.” See Scott’s essay, “Indian Affairs, 1867-1912” for his version of this speech.
“the rest was silence”: Scott plays on a line from Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Act V, scene ii: “The rest is silence.”
George Meredith, the Dean of English Novelists
Scott’s essay appeared in Munsey’s Magazine 38:6 (March 1908): 798-802. The article sounds like it was based on an interview with Meredith, but the details were supplied by Pelham Edgar. Having asked Edgar “where to get something new” on 20 March, 1907, Scott repeated the request on April 3, with specifics: “[H]ave you a few notes to contribute—present personal appearance and that sort of thing. Of course I won’t purvey any gossip about the great George.” A few days later Scott writers that “I made use of some of your G.M. hints and got the article done and it goes off tomorrow.”
Meredith’s novels lay “unregarded on the shelves of Mudie’s Library”: Mudie’s Select Library was a circulating library which charged its patrons one guinea a year for the privilege of borrowing [page 544] one book at a time. Mudie’s encouraged the development and production of the typical three-volume Victorian novel, as these books were perceived as a bargain—more words for one’s guinea, so to speak—by its borrowers. See Guinevere L. Griest’s Mudie’s Circulating Library and the Victorian Novel (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1970).
“Wherever culture is”: Scott would not have considered Moose Factory a centre of culture, but he discovered (and carried off) a set of Meredith novels there on his 1905 Treaty trip.
George Meredith edited the Ipswitch Journal and wrote social and literary articles for the London Morning Post, serving as their foreign correspondent in Italy during that country’s war with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Meredith’s novel Vittoria(1866), which contains the characters Mazzini, Garibaldi, and Cavour mentioned here by Scott, draws on his travels in Italy. Scott’s reference to Italian independence refers to actions against the Austro-Hungarian empire, beginning in 1861 with the declaration of the kingdom of Italy (Victor Emmanuel II as King and Camillio Benso di Cavour as prime minister), and ending with Italy’s acquisition of Venice after the Seven Weeks’ War against Austria in 1866.
“great publishing house”: Meredith served the publishing firm of Chapman and Hall in an advisory capacity.
“ward in Chancery”: This term refers to a minor or a mentally insane person whose legal interests are protected by Chancery, a division of the English High Court of Justice, the Lord Chancellor’s court.
Benjamin Disraeli, first Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-1881) was a writer and served as the British prime minister in 1868 and from 1874 to 1880. In his political career, Disraeli passed legislation which gave the vote to the working classes, and purchased shares in the Suez Canal to secure British trade. A Conservative, Disraeli also served as leader of the opposition during Gladstone’s term from 1868 to 1874.
William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) began his political career in England in 1832 as a Conservative, and served in the Coalition Ministry as chancellor of the Exchequer at the same time that Lord John Russell served as foreign secretary. Because of his growing concern for social polities such as universal male franchise, national education, and Irish education and home rule, Gladstone later changed his allegiance to the Liberal party. He served as Liberal [page 545] prime minister from 1868 to 1874, 1880 (for a few months) and 1886-94, when he resigned from politics.
John, first Earl Russell (1792-1878) was an elected member of the Liberal part in England from 1813 to 1855, serving as prime minister (1846-1852) and as foreign secretary from 1859 to 1865, when he again served a brief turn as prime minister until his defeat in parliament a few months later. Russell supported the Italian independence movement.
Peacock: Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), an employee of the East India Company and Shelley’s executor, was himself a poet and a novelist. Peacock’s satirical novels Headlong Hall (1816) and Crotchet Castle (1831) were both published by the firm of T. Hookham in London. Meredith married Mary Ellen Nicoll, Peacock’s widowed daughter, in 1849, but the couple separated in 1858. Meredith subsequently married Marie Vulliamy in 1864.
The Tercentenary of Quebec 1608-1908
This article appears in The Circle of Affection and Other Pieces in Prose and Verse (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1947), 153-6. No previous publication has been established.
The battle of the Plains of Abraham occurred on September 13, 1759 on a plateau near the city of Quebec. Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm commanded the French forces, and Colonel James Wolfe led the English forces. The English forces took up the French by surprise, approaching the battlefield by climbing up the cliffs which surrounded their battlefield at night. The French were also cut off from their supply ships. The English captured Quebec in a battle which lasted less than thirty minutes.
Sir Charles Saunders (c. 1713-1775) was commander-in-chief of the English naval fleet which brought Wolfe’s army to Quebec.
Samuel de Champlain (c. 1567-1635), the French explorer who mapped the St. Lawrence river and the east coast of Canada and New England from 1603 to 1607, Champlain also founded the city of Quebec (1608), and served as the governor of New France from 1627 to 1628, when Quebec was captured by the English. Quebec was returned to France in 1632. [page 546]
Louis de Buade, Comte de Palluau et de Frontenac (1622-1698) was the governor of the French colony of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to 1698.
Introduction, Amelia Paget, People of the Plains
Published in Ottawa by the Department of Indian Affairs in 1909, People of the Plains is illustrated with charcoals and pastels of Indians by Scott’s friend and companion on part of the 1906 Treaty 9 trip, Edmund Morris. In fact, one of the illustrations is, rather inappropriately, Morris’s drawing of Chief Cheesquinini, done at Chapleau, Ontario, in 1906. Readers of Rudy Wiebe’s The Temptations of Big Bear have met a fictionalized Amelia (MacLean) Paget, along with her family. Wiebe’s emphasis is on Kitty MacLean, but what Scott says of Amelia suggests that she would have been an equally good heroine.
Kichie Manitou (alternate spellings: Kitchie or Gitchie Manitou) is generally translated as “Great Spirit.” See Basil Johnston’s essay in W.H. New, ed. Native Writing and Canadian Literature for further discussion of the importance of this spirit in Native religions.
Behring Straits: The Bering Strait. Scott’s support of the new theory of a “land bridge” which, when it subsided beneath the North Atlantic “cut off the people of our continent from other portions of the world,” allowing the inhabitants of North America to develop as a distinct “race,” places him on the cutting edge of contemporary geological theory. American geologist James Dwight Dana (1813-1895), published in 1894 his Manual of Geology, treating of the Principles of the Science with Reference to American Geological History. This treatise, with his earlier works, explored a phenomenon which Dana termed a “geosyncline”; a trough-like sedimentary formation which Dana believed to be the forerunner of mountains, and thus an indicator of geological movement. Dana’s work in turn made possible Alfred Lothar Wegener’s (1880-1930) theory of continental drift, which asserted that all the continents had originally formed one giant land mass, but had later slid apart on different layers of the earth’s crust. A modified version of this theory of plate tectonics is still held today. Scott refers the interested reader to two related works which connect continental drift with race theory: a study by [page 547] Frederick Samuel Dellenbaugh (1853-1935), The North Americans of Yesterday: a comparative study of North American Indian life, customs and products, on the theory of the ethnic unity of the race (NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, c. 1900); and The American Race: a linguistic classification and ethnographic description of the native tribes of North and South America, by David Garrison Brinton (1837-1899), published in Philadelphia by D. McKay, 1901. Although the issue does not emerge in this article, clearly the theory that all first nations of North America shared one common ethnicity might have more considerable impact on the legalities involved in treaty-making.
Sioux: Scott describes the Dakota Sioux as fugitives from “justice,” who took “refuge in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.” The Sioux, he claims, “were responsible for many outrages upon the early pioneers in Minnesota and Dakota.” There is, however, another way of looking at this. The British owed a considerable debt to the Sioux, their allies during the American Revolution and in the War of 1812. The buffalo-dependent Sioux then settled in what is now the mid-western United States, but the treaties they had made with the American government (including the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868, which promised the Sioux the Black Hills region) were not honoured, and under pressure from settlers and prospectors seeking gold in the Black Hills, the Sioux led by Tatanka-Iyotanka (1831-1890), better known as Sitting Bull, engaged in battle with General George Armstrong Custer, killing 300 of Custer’s men at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. The U.S. Army retaliated by killing over 200 Sioux at Wounded Knee in 1890. When Sitting Bull and a band of Sioux crossed over the U.S. border, seeking assistance from the Canadian government and the North-West Mounted Police, they were given temporary shelter, but no lasting asylum, and no solutions to their long-term problems: the extinction of the buffalo and a lack of land on which to pursue their traditional way of life.
Disappearance of the buffalo: Buffalo nearly became extinct in the wild by 1883, due in part to increased demand for buffalo robes as trade items and to the practice of feeding railway crews laying track across the American Midwest with buffalo meat. However, the most important factor determining the buffalo’s fate was the policy of extermination espoused by General Philip Sheridan and practiced by the U.S. Army, which encouraged the destruction of the buffalo as a tactic to limit Sioux resistance. The army dispensed free ammunition and encouraged market hunting for hides, and by 1902, [page 548] of the hundreds of thousands of buffalo that had once roamed the continent, only a small herd of 300-500 wood bison remained in northern Alberta; in the United States, only 23 buffalo were left in Yellowstone Park.
Notes on the Meeting Place of the First Parliament of Upper Canada and the Early Buildings at Niagara
Scott’s “notes” were printed in the Royal Society of Canada Proceedings and Transactions. Third Series, 7, (1913-4), 175-91.
The full title of Scott’s contribution to The Makers of Canada Series was not, as he suggests, The Life of Simcoe, but John Graves Simcoe. The book was published by Morang in Toronto in 1916 as volume 7 of the Parkman edition, and was later reissued as volume 4 in the Anniversary Edition of The Makers of Canada Series (1926) by Oxford University Press. Scott served as co-editor of the series with Pelham Edgar; other series contributors included John George Bourinot (on Lord Elgin), A.G. Bradley (on Lord Dorchester), William D. LeSueur (on Champlain), and George R. Parkin (on Sir John A. Macdonald). The map and sketches of Fort George mentioned by Scott have not been reproduced.
History of Freemasonry in Canada: The full title of John Ross Robertson’s (1841-1918) book is The History of Freemasonry in Canada: from its introduction in 1749 compiled and written from official records and from mss. covering the period 1749-1858, in the possession of the author (Toronto: Hunter, Rose, 1899).
The Dominion Archives: See “Poetry and Progress,” where Scott writes approvingly of the establishment of a National Archive.
“pettiauger”: A corruption of ‘piragua,’ meaning a dugout canoe; here the word more likely refer to an open flat-bottomed schooner-rigged vessel with two masts, similar to a bateau.
York: The Town of York became the City of Toronto by an act of incorporation passed by the Legislative Council of Upper Canada on March 4, 1834.
“loophole”: A narrow vertical slit in a wall which admits air and light, loopholes are used for shooting through or for viewing. [page 549]
“bateau”: A flat-bottomed boat fitted with a sail, rudder, and oars, suitable for use on rivers.
a “toise” of stone: A “toise” is a military measure of 4 square yards; it may also mean 6 French lineal feet of 6 2/5 English feet.
“perches” of mason’s work: 1 “perch” (a rod or pole) is a lineal measure equal to 5.0292 metres.
salt spring “pans”: Brine is placed in pans to harvest salt by means of solar evaporation.
Duke de la Rochefoucauld’s Travels: Scott refers to the Duc de la Rouchefoucauld-Liancourt’s Travels through the United States of North America, the Country of the Iroquois, and Upper Canada in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, published in London in 1797.
E.B. Littlehales: Edward Baker Littlehales was Governor Simcoe’s secretary, and served as clerk of the first Legislative Council of Upper Canada in 1792.
Lt. Colonel Bruyeres: Bruyeres, a member of the Royal Engineers, also served on the troubled Land Board (a committee concerned with the distribution of lots to settlers) of the Settlement of Niagara in 1791.
Sir Alured Clarke: (c. 1745-1832) Clarke, who began his military career as an army ensign, rose to the position of commander-in-chief of the British forces in India and, ultimately, to the rank of field marshal, also had a long and varied record of service in politics. In 1790, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of the province of Quebec (renamed Lower Canada in August 1791), and in 1791, assumed command of all of the British military forces in North America. He controlled the distribution of crown and private lands in Lower Canada, and opened the first legislature of Lower Canada in December 1792. This body caused considerable controversy amongst residents of Lower Canada, as it conducted its business solely in English. Clarke left Lower Canada in 1793.
Indian Affairs, 1767-1841
This essay may be found in Canada and its Provinces. Vol. 4, Section 2, Part 2, “British Dominion.” Adam Shortt and Arthur G. Doughty, eds. (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook, 1914). “I am putting together some stuff for Doughty and Shortt’s History of Canada supposed to be about Indians, a pure task, nothing more” (Scott to Pelham Edgar, 6 [page 550] March 1911). Adam Shortt wrote Lord Sydenham (Toronto: Morang, 1912) for the Makers of Canada series of which Scott and Pelham Edgar were general editors.
Charles II (1630-1685), King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1660 to 1685, granted a charter to the Company of Adventures of England trading into Hudson’s Bay (otherwise known as the Hudson’s Bay Company) in 1670 for the purpose of discovering “a new Passage into the South Sea” and of trading in “Furrs Mineralls and other considerable Commodityes.” This document is crucial to understanding subsequent legal developments affecting aboriginal rights. The charter grants the Company all of the lands draining into Hudson’s Bay, or approximately 43% of present-day Canada, stating:
Wee…give grants and confirme unto the said Governor and Company and their successors the sole Trade and Commerce of all those Seas Streightes Bayes Rivers Lakes Creekes and Sounds in whatsoever Latitutde they shall bee that lie within the entrance of the Streightes commonly called Hudsons Streightes together with all the Landes and Territoryes upon the Countryes Coastes and confynes of the Seas actually possessed by or granted to any of our Subjectes or possessed by the Subjectes of any other Chrstian Prince or State with the Fishing of all Sortes of Fish…and all Mynes Royall as well discovered as not discovered of Gold Silver Gemms and pretious Stones to bee found or discovered with the Territoryes Lymittes…
Aboriginal title to the soil is effectually side-stepped by Charles’ apparent restriction of titular “possession” to “Christian Subjectes.” The territory named here became known as Rupert’s Land after Charles’ cousin Prince Rupert, the first governor of the HBC. The charter also establishes the Governor’s right to “make ordeyne and constitute such and soe many reasonable Lawes Constitucions Orders and Ordinances as to them or the greater part of them being then and there present shall seeme necessary and convenient for the good Government of the said Company.” The “instructions to British colonial governors” mentioned by Scott do not form part of this legal document, but were issued in the form of recommendations by the Colonial Office that same year. See Peter C. Newman’s The Company of Adventures (London: Penguin, 1986), 117-8 and 437-8. [page 551]
plenum dominium: As used here, this term refers to lands to which aboriginal title has been extinguished, now held by the state (plenum=full; dominium=property, right of ownership). Scott’s citation of nineteenth-century “law lords of the crown” is taken from Lord Watson’s Reasons of the Judicial Committee of the [British] Privy Council in the case of St. Catherines Milling & Lumber Co. v. The Queen (1888), 14 App. Cas 46 (J.C.P.C.). This landmark case, which dealt with the title and use of lands named in Treaty 3 (1873), had been appealed to the British Privy Council by the Canadian Supreme Court (1887) S.C.R. 577; the Ontario Court of Appeal (1886) 13 O.A.R. 148; Chancellor Boyd at trial (1885) 10 O.R. 196 (Ch).
Arnout Cornelius Veile, also spelled Arnaud Cornelius Viele and Aernout Cornelissien Viele (1620-1700): This colonist acted as an Indian interpreter during early treaty negotiations and was instrumental in securing Iroquois loyalty to the British crown.
Clinton: George Clinton (c. 1686-1761) was in turn an officer in the British navy, governor of Newfoundland and New York, and a member of Britain’s Parliament. His suggestion to send aid to the Iroquois nations in 1745 did not receive the support of the New York assembly due to strong mercantile interests which advocated continued political neutrality for the Six Nations to protect trade; however, Clinton continued to meet with the Iroquois and established diplomatic English-Iroquois relations. Clinton relinquished control of Indian affairs to William Johnson, his former representative, in 1747 and returned to England after he was replaced as governor in 1753.
Jay’s Treaty was negotiated by the United States and Britain in 1794 in an attempt to resolve differences (including boundary disputes, West Indian trade agreements, and the seizure of American ships) which had arisen as a result of violations of the 1783 Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Paris was negotiated between Britain and its former thirteen colonies on September 3, 1783 following the American War of Independence, or, as Scott terms it, the “Revolutionary War.”
Lewis H. Morgan’s League of the Ho-de-no-sau-nee, or Iroquois (Rochester: Sage & Brother, 1851) affords a surprisingly modern anthropological approach to reconstructing pre- and post-contact Iroquois history, using oral narratives and cultural artefacts as the basis for much of its analysis, though he also draws on British perspectives such as Colden’s narrative (see below). Morgan dedicates [page 552] the work to Ha-sa-no-an-da [Ely S. Parker], a Seneca, and states that it is “the fruit of our joint researches.” Morgan and Ha-sa-no-an-da provide a pronunciation guide to the indigenous names used in place of familiar anglicizations. For example, in the preface, the names of the leagues’ six nations appear as follows: Gä-ne-ä’-ga-o-no’, or People Possessors of the Flint [Mohawk]; O-nun’-dä-ga-o-no’, or People on the Hills [Onondaga]; Nun-da’-wä-o-no’, or Great Hill People [Seneca]; O-na’-yote-kä-o-no’, and Granite People [Oneida]; Gwe-u’-gweh-o-no’, or People at the Mucky Land [Cayuga]; and the Dus-ga’-o-weh-o-no’, or Shirt Wearing People [Tuscarora]. Within each of these nations there were eight tribes: Wolf, Deer, Bear, Snipe, Beaver, Heron, Turtle, and Hawk (79). Scott quotes Lewis’ words on “the ties of kindred” from page 82.
sachem: The political leader of a first nation. The word is a corruption of the Narragansett word “sagamore.” For one early use of this word, and a contemporary British view of political alliances with the (then) Five Nations, see Cadwallader Colden’s The History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada, Which are dependent On the Province of New-York in America, and Are the Barrier between the English and French in that Part of the World (London: T. Osborne, 1747). According to Morgan and Ha-sa-no-an-da, the Iroquois league had fifty sachems. The Mohawk held nine, the Oneida nine, the Onondaga fourteen, the Cayuga ten, and the Seneca eight, while the Tuscarora, who joined the league last, were unrepresented (63). These sachemships were identified by name and associated with a certain tribe within each nation, from whom successors to each position were chosen. Descent was figured matrilineally, and “all titles, rights and property” descended in the female line (84).
wampum: An abbreviation of the Algonquian word wampumpeag, meaning beads made from shells. Wampum was used as currency by some first nations. It also served as decoration, and, in the case of the Iroquois, as a mnemonic device to recall community laws and history (See Morgan 121-3). Scott’s statement that Sir William Johnson “entered into the spirit of their [Native] policy, used their imagery, [and] spoke to them perpetually in Wampum,” not only refers to Johnson’s practice of handling out strings of wampum at conferences with Native peoples as reminders of the content of his speeches, but it also suggests metaphorically that Johnson provided the natives with goods to furnish material reminders of their political relationship. [page 553]
Da-ga-no-we-da: According to Morgan, Da-ga-no-we-da was the founder and first law-giver of the Iroquois nations (61). Ha-yo-went-ha, better known as Hiawatha, was a sixteenth-century Onondaga chief who was one of his first converts to the concept of peace between the five nations.
The careers of Sir William Johnson (1715-1774), his son John Johnson (1742-1830), and his nephew, Colonel Guy Johnson (1740-1788) in the military-style department of Indian affairs are given in detail in the course of Scott’s article. It is worth adding, however, that William Johnson was also a land speculator, and used his position within Indian Affairs to sell lands belonging to the Six Nations and amass an enormous personal fortune.
Fort Stanwix: The two documents to which Scott alludes are: first, the 22 October 1784 Treaty of Fort Stanwix (with the Six Nations), which arranged the holding of Native hostages against the return of prisoners of war, secured lands to the Oneida and Tuscarora, and established the border of the Indian countries at the Ohio River; second, the 9 January 1789 Treaty with the Six Nations at Fort Harmar, which aimed to establish peace with the Six Nations, excepting the Mohawks.
Rev. Samuel Kirkland: Kirkland (1741-1808) served as missionary to the Six Nations. He attended school in Connecticut with Joseph Brant, and first worked among the Seneca, who adopted him. In 1766, he established a mission among the Oneidas, and lived with them until his death. At the outset of the American Revolution, he gained from the Six Nations an initial promise of neutrality, although all but the Oneida and Tuscarora eventually sided with the British. He was present at the Fort Stanwix treaty signing in 1784.
Butler: John Butler (1728-1796), was a soldier employed by William Johnson as an interpreter within the Indian department and as a lieutenant over the Indian forces in the Seven Years’ War. From 1772 to 1774, Butler worked as a justice of the Court of Quarter Sessions in Tryon County, New York. He returned to interpreter’s duties at the beginning of Guy Johnson’s term as Indian superintendent to work as deputy superintendent of the Six Nations. During the Revolution, Butler served the British by maintaining ties with the Iroquois and opposing Rev. Samuel Kirkland’s scheme of Indian neutrality; first, by creating a network of Indian spies, and second, by gathering an Indian force to fight at Fort Stanwix in 1777. Butler [page 554] is most famous for his militia, Butler’s Rangers, which raided along the American frontier. Butler’s Rangers still exist in the form of an historical re-enactment group.
Captain Caldwell: Henry Caldwell (1735-1810), was a soldier who served as quartermaster general to Guy Carlton in Wolfe’s army during the siege of Quebec. Caldwell later became an innovative agriculturalist and landowner. After obtaining a seat in the Legislative Council of Lower Canada (Quebec), he occupied various positions of governmental responsibility, eventually rising to the position of Receiver-General in 1794, and embezzling some £40,000 from the government and the Jesuits over the course of his career.
Deserontya: John Deserontyon (c. 1740-1811), was a Mohawk who fought with the British in the Seven Years’ War and in the American Revolution. Due to the 1783 cession of Mohawk lands in New York to the Americans, Deserontyon was forced to move his band to the Bay of Quinte area on Lake Ontario. As Scott observes, this town of Deseronto bears his name.
“perdurable as an index of brass”: Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc, does not rust or fade; neither does a perdurable, or eternal, memory. Brass weights were commonly used with commercial scales as a reliable measure of goods purchased, and the sense in which Scott views Natives as consumers of goods and services is clear in his comparison: “Indians are never slow in making demands, and a promise sinks into their minds and becomes as perdurable as an index of brass.” Scott may have borrowed (and twisted) this phrase from Morgan, who writes: “If the red man had any ambition for immortality, he would intrust his fame to the unwritten remembrance of his tribe and race, rather than to inscriptions on columns in his native land, or other monument more durable than brass, which neither wasting rain, nor raging wind, nor flight of time could overthrow” (59).
Haldimand: Sir Frederick Haldimand (1718-1791) served with the Prussian, Dutch and Swiss armies before joining the British forces to fight in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763). Haldimand held a variety of military posts in North America, but most importantly, served as governor of Quebec from 1777 to 1786. In this capacity, he increased Quebec’s fortifications against possible invasion from the south, and worked to maintain good relations with the Indians, which became strained after Britain ceded ancestral Mohawk lands to the Americans in 1783. [page 555]
Carleton: Gay Carleton, first Baron Dorchestor (1724-1808), served as Quebec’s governor from 1768 to 1778 and from 1785 to 1795. During 1782 to 1783, he was commander-in-chief of the British forces at New York, and held the state while United Empire Loyalists escaped the American colonies. Carleton supported the Quebec Act of 1774, which protected the rights of French Catholics in Quebec, and in 1791 opposed the separation of the territory into Upper and Lower Canada.
Lord North: Frederick North, second Earl of Guilford (1732-1792) served in the British House of Commons beginning in 1754. A Tory loyalist and supporter of the King, North became prime minister in 1770. He supported the Stamp Act and the American tea tax, ill-considered measures which instigated rebellion by the American colonies. Although North tendered his resignation after the revolution’s outbreak, no one could be found to replace him and he remained in office. Against the wishes of King George III, North resigned his position as prime minister in 1782 and formed a coalition government with Whig Charles James Fox in 1783.
“suzerainty”: A situation where a nation has some control over another, internally autonomous state. Scott claims that Britain’s withholding of the transfer of the western posts to the United States on behalf of the Indians, their former allies, demonstrates Britain’s suzerain-like control of American policy concerning Indians. It is also possible to apply the word to the relationship Scott describes between the Indians and the British; just as feudal lord controlled his subjects and purported to act on their behalf, so do the British control the destiny of their Native “subjects” by refusing to concede to the Americans either the posts or the territory between the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers.
General St. Clair: Arthur St. Clair (1736-1818) was a soldier with a chequered military career. St. Clair fought for the British during the French and Indian wars, but served as a leader of American militia during the American Revolution. In 1777, he abandoned Fort Ticonderoga to British forces without a fight, but was cleared of charges against him by a court martial. Appointed governor of the American Northwest Territory in 1787, St. Clair’s efforts to enforce the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1784 led to an uprising near Fort Wayne, during which he was handily defeated by the Miami Indians. After unsuccessfully attempting to prevent Ohio from becoming a state, he retired from public life, wrote a defense of his military actions [page 556] (1812), and went broke experimenting with the manufacture of iron stoves.
McKee: Alexander McKee (1735-1799) was a Loyalist and former soldier in the Seven Years’ War whose marriage to a Shawnee woman and wide acquaintance among Ohio River Indians helped secure him a position as captain and interpreter in the Indian department at Detroit. In the post-revolution years, McKee used his influence to promote Native resistance to American expansion westward.
Claus: Christian Daniel Claus (1727-1787) immigrated from Germany in 1749, and began studying Six Nations languages under Theyanoguin (also known as King Hendrick), the legendary ancestor of Joseph and Molly Brant. In 1755, he became an interpreter, lieutenant, and deputy secretary in William Johnson’s Indian department, and was promoted to deputy agent to the Canadian Indians in 1760. He married Johnson’s daughter Ann (the daughter of Johnson’s wife Catherine Weissenberg, not of Molly Brant) in 1762. After Johnson’s death in 1774, Claus was dismissed from office by Guy Carleton, but was reinstated in 1777 as superintendent of the Six Nations Indians. In 1778 he was appointed deputy agent for the Six Nations in Canada.
William Claus (1765-1826), was the son of Christian Daniel Claus and grandson of Sir William Johnson; his uncle, Sir John Johnson, was instrumental in obtaining for him a government position as deputy superintendent of the Six Nations at Fort George upon Butler’s death in 1796. Claus commanded British troops at Fort George and Queenston Heights during the War of 1812. After the war, Claus obtained seven large land cessions from the Ojibwa, and served on the Legislative and Executive Councils of Upper Canada.
Molly Brant: Mary Brant (c. 1736-1796) or Koñwatsi`tsiaiéñi [someone lends her a flower] was the sister of Joseph Brant, and the common-law wife of Sir William Johnson. Although she had eight children with Johnson, in his will, Mary is referred to as his “prudent & faithful Housekeeper” rather than as his wife. Molly’s high status within the Mohawk community was undoubtedly useful to Johnson in his negotiations, but she also exercised diplomatic power in her own right. In 1777, Molly sent Indian runners to warn the British forces besieging Fort Stanwix of the approach of American [page 557] troops, who were subsequently ambushed by a combined British-Native force. In recognition of her services on this and other occasions, Haldiman arranged a substaintial pension for her.
Brant’s last words, “Have pity on the poor Indians…”: For the biographical profiles of Brant upon which Scott relied, see Thomas L. McKenny and James Hall, The Indian Tribes of North America, Vol. 2 (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1934), 213-55, and William L. Stone’s Life of Joseph Brant—Thayendanegea (New York: Alexander V. Blake, 1838). Stone, whose book covers much of the Native involvement in the War of 1812, quotes Brant’s supposed last words to his nephew Teyoninhokârâwen: “Have pity on the poor Indians: if you can get any influence with the great, endeavour to do them all the good you can” (499). Scott also takes the idea that Haldimand offered “reassurances” to Brant that the Mohawks would receive a land grant along the Grand River from pages 238-9 of Stone’s volume.
General Isaac Brock (1769-1812), was a British soldier who served in Jamaica, Barbados, and Holland before coming to the Canadas in 1802. Brock was appointed a brigadier-general by James Henry Craig in 1807; prior to Craig’s arrival, as temporary commander-in-chief, he had developed Quebec’s systems of fortification and the navy. The Americans declared war on 18 June 1812 and invaded Upper Canada at a location near Detroit on 12 July 1812. Brock, with a force of 400 militia and 600 Indians led by Tecumseh, obtained the surrender of Fort Detroit from Brigadier-General William Hull on 16 August 1812. Brock died 13 October 1812, while leading an attack on American forces at Queenston Heights, allegedly crying, “Push on brave York Volunteers!” The battle was eventually won by the British, under the command of Major-General Roger Hale Sheaffe, who sent his men up a steep cliff to capture the American hilltop position.
York: During 1813, American forces briefly occupied York (Toronto), burnt many of its public buildings, and used the city as the starting point for a naval assault on Fort George.
Beaver Dam: The battle of Beaver Dams took place on 24 June 1813, when Caughnawaga and Mohawk Indians ambushed American troops. Armed with a warning of an intended American ambush from Laura Secord, Lieutenant James FitzGibbon convinced the commanding American officer that his tiny British unit was closely followed by numerous reinforcements and secured a victory. [page 558]
Lundy’s Lane: A confused battle fought in the dark on 25 July 1814, near Niagara Falls. Both sides suffered heavy casualties; the Americans left the conflict first.
Chateauguay: On 26 October 1813, at a wooded site not far from Montreal, a small group of French Canadians repelled invading American forces by using Hannibal-like tactics to present the idea of a much larger defending army.
Chrysler’s Farm: The 11 November 1813 battle which took place at the Crysler farm (near Morrisburg, Ontario) saw a force of 800 British soldiers (including Native allies and local militia) force 4,000 American troops from the country. Scott’s spelling [Chrysler’s] has been retained in the text.
Treaty of Ghent: The Treaty of Ghent, signed in Belgium by Britain and the United States on 24 December 1814, is remarkable for what it does not contain—any sense of resolution to the War of 1812, which in any case continued on for two weeks after the treaty was signed. Most of the lands captured by either side are ordered to be returned, and all contentious borders are to be resolved by bi-partisan committee surveys. See the notes to “The Canadian Indians and the Great World War” for an explanation of Article Nine’s effect on both sides’ relations with Indians.
Lord Glenelg: Charles Grant, Baron Glenelg (1778-1866), served as a member of British Parliament from 1811 to 1818, occupying such positions as chief secretary for Ireland, lord of the treasury, and succeeding to appointed positions such as the board of trade and treasurer of the navy (1823). In 1835, he was appointed colonial secretary. He favoured reforming the government of Lower Canada, but was unable to meet Patriote demands for representative government or to halt the 1837 Papineau rebellion. Amid demands for his resignation, he was gently pensioned out of public life in 1839.
Oka; Acting on instructions in 1882 from William Spragge, then superintendent general of Indian Affairs, Scott’s father engaged in research which traced the disputed lands at Oka to a donation deed of 1663. The deed, in William Scott’s view, established the claim of the Gentleman of the Seminary of St. Sulpice over that of the Natives. See Report relating to the affairs of the Oka Indians, made to the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs (Ottawa: McLean, Roger, 1883), 5.
fee simple: To possess as absolute property. [page 559]
Constitutional Act of 1791: The main features of this amendment of the Quebec Act (1774) as they affected Indian affairs are: the division of the former province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada (now the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, respectively); the creation of a second, elected legislative body in each province (although the powerful appointed Legislative Councils were not responsible to the elected Assemblies); and the new powers given to the Lieutenant-Governor of each province to allot Crown lands to Protestant clergy—the so-called “clergy reserves.”
“hollands”: Gin made in Holland.
Inspector-General Darling: Henry Charles Darling (d. 1845), secretary to Lord Dalhousie, in 1828 conducted a survey of the state of the Indians. He later served as deputy superintendent general of Indian affairs in the Canadas.
General Thomas Gage (c. 1719-1787), officer in the British army, and military governor of Montreal from 1760 to 1763. Gage had an appreciable effect on the development of the Canadian fur trade, as he abolished the previous French monopoly system in 1761, and allowed the controlled development of a number of trading posts under military supervision. He served briefly as commander-in-chief of British forces in New York, and in 1774, tried to convince Guy Carleton to employ Natives to defeat the American rebels.
Sir John Colborne, first Baron Seaton (1778-1863), was a soldier who, unlike most of his contemporaries, rose through the ranks without purchasing commissions. He served with Sir John Moore at Corunna (Scott knew the poem, “The Burial of Sir John Moore at Corunna”), and was lieutenant governor of Upper Canada in 1828, and was the key force behind the establishment of the Clergy Reserves in 1831 and the expansion of roads and townships. Immigration to the province increased under Colborne, but he is best remembered for his role in founding Upper Canada College in 1829. In 1836, Glenelg appointed Colborne commander-in-chief of the forces in the Canadas, and as such, he quickly suppressed the 1837 Papineau rebellion in Lower Canada. Colborne did not approve of Durham’s recommendation to join the two provinces, and eventually left Canada for England in 1839.
Elliott: Matthew Elliott (c. 1739-1814), soldier and farmer, traded among the Shawnee from 1774 to 1777, when he was arrested as a possible American spy at Detroit. He became a Loyalist, and from [page 560] 1779 worked as an Indian agent, directing Indian forces in Ohio and Kentucky. After the revolution, Elliott settled in Upper Canada. He became superintendent of Indians for Detroit in 1796, was dismissed in 1797 due to suspected embezzlement, and reinstated in 1808. Prior to the War of 1812, he encouraged Shawnee resistance to American expansion and loyalty to the British crown.
General Wayne: Anthony Wayne (1745-1796), was a surveyor and tanner who served in the American militia during the Revolution despite a lack of formal military training. Also known as “Mad Anthony,” Wayne rose to the rank of major-general in 1791, and defeated Indian forces at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, on 20 August 1794, not 1795 as Scott states. Scott may be conflating this date with the date of another kind of “defeat”: the Treaty of Greenville, signed by Wayne 3 August 1795, is “A treaty of peace between the United States of America, and tribes of Indians called the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pattawatimas, Miamis, Eel Rivers, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws, and Kaskaskias,” and it establishes borders to the Ohio Indian countries as well as a string of forts through which Americans are to be granted safe conduct through Indian territories.
dispatches: Throughout the three articles on the history of Indian Affairs, Scott makes reference to and often quotes from dispatches written by various colonial administrators. In the index to the Canada and its Provinces volumes, Scott indicates that his source for this information is Copies or Extracts of Correspondence since the 1st of April 1835, between the Secretary of State for the Colonies and the Governors of the British American Provinces respecting the Indians in those Provinces (London: 1839). This work, which may form part of the Annual Reports of the Department of Indian Affairs, which Scott cites as a general reference, could not be located. Other sources in Scott’s brief, incomplete bibliography include: Indian Treaties and Surrenders, from 1680 to 1890 (Ottawa, 1891); Descriptions and Plans of Certain Indian Reserves in the Province of Manitoba and the North-West Territories (Dept. of Indian Affairs, 1880); Handbook of Indians of Canada (Ottawa, 1913); Harmon’s Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America (Andover, 1820); Kane’s Wanderings of an Artist among the Indians of North America (London, 1859); Laird’s Our Indian Treaties (Winnipeg, 1905); Maclean’s Canadian Savage Folk: the Native Tribes of Canada (Toronto, 1896); Mair’s Through the Mackenzie Basin: a Narrative of the Athabasca and Peace River Treaty Expedition of [page 561] 1899 (Toronto, 1908); Morris’ The Treaties of Canada with the Indians of Manitoba and the North-West Territories (Toronto, 1880).
Indian Affairs, 1840-1867
The second of Scott’s essays in Canada and its Provinces. Vol. 5, Section 3, “United Canada.” Adam Shortt and Arthur G. Doughty, eds. (Toronto: Glasgow, Brook, 1914).
Province of Canada: This term refers to the united Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, which were formed into one political unit by the British Parliament’s Act of Union in 1840. The predominantly English, Protestant Upper Canada was united with the mainly French Catholic Lower Canada following a recommendation by John George Lambton, the first earl of Durham, in his 1839 report. Each province was given equal representation in the new legislature.
cacique: An Indian chief.
Sir John Colborne: See “Indian Affairs, 1767-1841.”
Lord Glenelg: Charles Grant. See “Indian Affairs, 1767-1841.”
Sir James Kempt (1765-1854), served with Wellington in the Napoleonic wars before assuming the lieutenant governorship of Nova Scotia, where he reunited Cape Breton Island with the mainland part of the province (1820). Kempt also worked on the Rideau Canal commission, investigating the burgeoning expenses of the project, and in 1828 took over Dalhousie’s post as governor-in-chief of British North America. In Lower Canada, Kempt faced rising dissatisfaction with government representation and finances. In Upper Canada, he ordered construction of a road from Penetanguishene to York (Toronto), and created a separate Indian Department for the province before resigning the position to Lord Aylmer and returning to England in 1830. As Scott relates, Kempt favoured abandoning the practice of distributing “presents” to Indians, promoted agriculturally-based settlements and assimilation, and encouraged establishment of evangelical missions.
Lieutenant-Colonel Mackay: James McKay (1828-1879) was a Métis servant of the Hudson’s Bay Company who spoke several Native languages. After quitting the HBC, he became an independent trader, and entered into politics as a member of the Council of [page 562] Assiniboia in 1868. McKay, who supported Canada’s claims to the Red River territory, avoided conflict with fellow Métis during the 1869 Riel uprising by residing in the United States. In the new province of Manitoba, McKay was a member of the Legislative Council from 1871 to 1876, minister of agriculture from 1874 to 1878, and from 1873 to 1875, a member of the council of North-West Territories, which governed Native issues. McKay was involved in the mediation of Treaties 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6.
molton, ratteen: Molton is a heavy, felt-like woolen cloth suitable for outer winter wear, such as capes or coats. Ratteen is also thick woolen material, usually quilted or twilled (diagonally ribbed). Scott takes these examples of trade goods from a list entitled “Catalogue of Articles” paid to Indians by the government of Upper Canada. See Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada, laid before the Legislative Assembly, 1845-1846 (Printed by order of the Legislative Assembly. Montreal: Rollo Campbell, 1846-7), 6. This lengthy report, the result of the 22 January 1844 Royal Commission on Indian Affairs, is the source of much of Scott’s factual information and of many of the quotations in this article.
July 1829 speech by Lieutenant-Colonel Mackay: Scott leaves out four paragraphs of the original speech between his first and second paragraphs here, and modernizes by removing the capitalization of several nouns. He also omits a sentence which gives a limited sense of reciprocity to the proceedings in which the Indians are addressed as “Children”; after the Minominie chief requests a “little of your milk [rum],” the chief adds, “I give this pipe to my brother soldier (pointing to Mr. Impelt,) and hope he will not disdain to smoke with it” (195). The entire text of “A Speech delivered by Lieutenant-Colonel Mackay, Superintendent Indian Department, in the name of His Excellency, Sir John Colborne, K.C.B., their Presents, at the Island of St. Joseph’s, on the 11th July, 1829” may be found on pages 193-5 of Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada.
The Aborigines Protection Society: An English society founded in 1838 to support Indians in British North America and the United States. The Society purchased reserve lands on Lennox Island for the Micmacs of Prince Edward Island in 1870.
Church of the United Brethren: Scott refers to the Moravians, also known as the Unitas Fratrum or United Brethren, founded in 1457. The Moravians established a mission at Fairfield on the Thames River in Upper Canada. [page 563]
Peter Jones: In Appendix No. 38, “Evidence of the Rev. Peter Jones (respecting the Indians of the River Credit)” of Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada, 177-9, Jones identifies himself as half-Chippewa on his mother’s side, and asserts that he has also lived among the Mohawks, who adopted him. He states that he has translated the Books of Genesis, Matthew, John, and other portions of scripture and hymns into Native tongues. Jones advocates the training of Indians as missionaries and teachers. The Elliott to whom Scott refers may be the Rev. Adam Elliott, Missionary to the Six Nations, who also gives a report in this volume, and refers to the New England Company and their funding of Six Nations schools.
Sir George Arthur (1784-1854): A soldier in the Napoleonic Wars, Arthur was appointed commandant of British Honduras in 1814, and lieutenant governor of Van Diemen’s Land [Australia] in 1823. He assumed Sir Francis Bond Head’s post as lieutenant governor of Upper Canada in 1838, executed two men involved in the recent rebellion, and retained Head’s secretary and many of his advisors—the powerful “Family Compact” Lord Durham’s report aimed to dethrone. Arthur visited the Six Nations in 1838, arranged compensation for the Ojibwa land surrendered to Head in 1836, and commissioned Justice James Buchanan Macaulay to report on the need for reforms within the Indian Department in 1839.
Chief Justice Macaulay: James Buchanan Macaulay (1793-1859) was in turn a soldier, lawyer, politician and King’s Bench judge. As Scott summarizes, Macaulay believed that Natives could exert “no claims to separate nationality.” Macaulay’s recommendations on Native rights are precise: “As to the exercise of civilized rights, the resident Tribes are peculiarly situated. Being in point of fact naturalized or natural born subjects, and domiciled within the organized portions of the Province, it would be difficult to point out any tenable ground on which a claim to be an exempt or distinctive character could be rested. The Six Nations have, I believe, asserted the highest pretensions to separate nationality, but in the Courts of Justice they have always been held amenable to, and entitled to the protection of the Laws of the land. See Appendix No. 98, “On the Civil Rights, &c., of the Indians. Extract from Mr. Justice Macaulay’s Report to Sir George Arthur, 1839,” Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada, 279-80.
Crown Land Department: The Crown Lands Department was created under section 42 of the Union Act (3 and 4 Victoria, c.35; 1842), [page 564] and under the terms of this legislation, the Commissioner of Crown Lands was to provide the government with lists of land sales and expenditures. The department controlled Crown, Jesuit, Clergy, School, and Wood lands, Mining locations, and Fisheries. The Office of the Surveyor General merged with that of Crown Lands in 1845. From 1853 to 1855, the Commissioner was not required to issue a report to the government. The name of the department changed to Department of Crown Lands in 1860, and the Indian Affairs portfolio was added to the department’s areas of responsibility that same year.
Earl of Selkirk: Thomas Douglas, fifth Earl of Selkirk (1771-1820), and chief shareholder of the Hudson’s Bay Company, made a treaty on 18 July 1817 securing lands along the Ossiniboyne [Assiniboine] and Red Rivers, for the price of “one hundred pounds weight of good and merchantable tobacco.” See Smith’s Canadian Indians and the Law: Selected Documents, 1663-1972 (Ottawa: McClelland and Stewart, 1975), 197-8.
Rupert’s Land: See “Indian Affairs, 1767-1841.”
Hon. William B. Robinson: William Benjamin Robinson (1797-1873) was a fur trader and a Tory who represented Simcoe in the Legislative Assembly from 1830 to 1841, and from 1844 to 1854. The government had sold mining location tickets to sites on Lake Superior and Lake Huron without negotiating a treaty with area Natives. The treaties which Robinson negotiated in 1850—used as models for subsequent treaties—thus feature an “adjustment” of £4,000 and a £1,000 annuity, to compensate for this unauthorized sale of mining rights. See Alexander Morris’ The Treaties of Canada with the Indians, 16-21, for Robinson’s explanation of the negotiations to Colonel Bruce, Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs.
Cayuga Bridge Stock: This seems to be a reference to the Six Nations’ purchase of stock in the Grand River Navigation Company. On Sir Colborne’s recommendation, the band purchased three-quarters of the stock, based on the assumption that improvement to waterways infrastructure would ultimate prove beneficial to the band’s economic development. The stock was not profitable, however, and even drove the Six Nations into debt, as they had to borrow from other bands in order to make payments. See Appendix No. 89, Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada, 43.
despatches: For information on Scott’s sources, see notes to “Indian Affairs, 1767-1841.” [page 565] Major Plenderleath Christie: William Plenderleath Christie (1780-1845) was a soldier who served in Italy and the West Indies during the Napoleonic Wars before moving to Montreal around 1816, where he inherited substantial moneys, seigneuries and farms from his father and half-brother. He endowed Protestant churches and schools for Indians in Lower Canada, and acted as military secretary for Lower Canada during the 1837-8 rebellions.
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts; New England Company: See “The Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada.”
General Coffin: John Coffin (1756-1838) was an American-born Loyalist who served under Sir Guy Carleton in New York. Coffin raised a large regiment during the War of 1812, and was promoted to general in 1819. He later emigrated to New Brunswick, where he worked as a member of the Assembly and as chief magistrate of King’s County.
Wesleyan Methodists: The Wesleyans and Methodists first joined in 1833. The two groups separated in 1840, and reunited in 1847.
Rev. William Case (1780-1855) was an American-born Methodist minister who began his career in the Bay of Quinte circuit in Upper Canada. Case, troubled by the poverty of the Indians on his circuit, initiated an agricultural settlement for Indians on Grape Island in the Bay of Quinte in 1826, and supported Native translations of the New Testament and hymns. In 1836, he helped to build another settlement at Alderville, on Rice Lake, and lived there for the remainder of his life.
cooper: A tradesman who makes water-tight wooden containers with curved sides fastened together by hoops, such as barrels, buckets and tubs.
charcoal burner: A maker of charcoal. Charcoal is composed of partially-burnt bones or wood.
Lord Metcalfe: Charles Theophilus, first Baron Metcalfe (1785-1846) began his career as a colonial administrator in the offices of the East Indian Company. In India, Metcalfe negotiated a treaty with Ranjit Singh in the Punjab (1809), served as a member of the Supreme Council of Indian, and rose to the position of governor general (1835-8) before resigning from the company. From 1839 to 1842, Metcalfe was governor of Jamaica, and in 1843, he succeeded Bagot as governor-in-chief of the province of Canada. Metcalfe supported French-English equality in the legislature and urged generous [page 566] treatment of offenders arrested during the 1837-8 rebellions in Lower Canada. After the failure of a bill to institute a university in Upper Canada and a serious illness, Metcalfe resigned his post and returned to England in 845, where he died soon after.
Sir John Harvey (1778-1852), was an officer in the British army and administrator in the Maritime provinces. He served in Holland, France, Ceylon, Egypt and India before coming to Upper Canada in 1813. Harvey led a night raid on American forces near Stoney Creek on 5 June 1813, and subsequently fought at the battles of Crysler’s Farm and Lundy’s Lane (see notes to “Indian Affairs, 1767-1841”). After the war, he took part in a commission on crown land in Upper Canada (1825-6). After a period of service in Ireland, in 1836 Harvey was appointed lieutenant governor of Prince Edward Island. Here, as in Ireland, Harvey encountered the problem of absentee landlords whose large estates hampered development and impoverished tenants, but he left for New Brunswick before debate over the problem escalated. In New Brunswick, he reformed the government and quieted a border dispute with Maine. In 1841, Harvey was appointed to Newfoundland, where his main action was to ensure equal eduation endowments for Catholic and Protestant schools. 1846 saw Harvey transfer to Nova Scotia, where he turned his attention to the civil service and justice reforms.
Laurence Oliphant (1829-1888), was a travel writer and secretary to Lord Elgin. He wrote two novels, Picadilly, a fragment of contemporary biography (1866) and Altiora Peto (1883).
Abbé Sigoyne: Jean-Mandé Sigoyne (1763-1844) was a French Catholic missionary to the Acadians and the Mimac in Nova Scotia. He learned, and preached in, the Micmac tongue. His fluency in English, attained during travels in England from 1792 to 1799, and his friendship with Judge Peleg Wiswall, enabled Sigoyne to draw up wills, deeds, and other documents for his largely illiterate parishioners.
Long Parliament: Cromwell’s English Parliament of 1640 to 1653 and 1659 to 1660.
Sir Charles Bagot: (1781-1843), was a colonial administrator who began his career as a member of British parliament. Bagot’s experience as minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary to the United States (1815-9) was useful in his later appointment as governor-in-chief of the newly-formed Province of Canada (1841-3). During his tenure in Canada, Bagot struggled to maintain a non-partisan [page 568] colonial form of governance against reformers in favour of responsible government, such as Robert Baldwin. He was succeeded in his post by Sir Charles Metcalfe.
Henry du Pré Labouchere (1831-1912) was a British politician and editor of the magazine Truth.
Earl of Gosford: Archibald Acheson, second Earl of Gosford (1776-1849), was an Irish-born Scottish Protestant who disapproved of Ireland’s union with England in 1800, and, like Daniel O’Connell, favoured sharing political power in Ireland with Irish Catholics. Acheson was appointed governor-in-chief of British North America in 1835, but was not made commander of the military, as was the case in previous appointments. His report on turbulent Lower Canadian politics recommended only moderate changes and was not able to satisfy Patriote demands for representative government. In 1837, he ordered 26 arrests, and after the ensuing rebellion, resigned his post to Colborne in 1838.
Hon. William McDougall (1822-1905) may be the consummate representative of Scott’s second, “civil administration,” phase of Indian affairs, rising as he did from within the province and from a civilian background. The Canadian-born McDougall was a lawyer, a member of the Province of Canada’s Assembly from 1858 to 1867, and served as commissioner of crown lands from 1862 to 1864. The decidedly pro-Confederation McDougall was rewarded with the post of minister of public works in Sir John A. Macdonald’s government. He was appointed lieutenant-governor of Rupert’s Land in 1867, but Riel’s rebellion prevented his assuming these duties.
Lord Durham: John George Lambton, first Earl of Durham (1792-1840) began his political career in the British House of Commons in 1813, and held a seat there, supporting such reforms as Catholic emancipation, universal education and free trade, until 1828. He was appointed ambassador to Russia in 1835, and on his return to England in 1837 was selected as the new governor-in-chief of British North America. Durham caused a sensation when he released several Lower Canadian prisoners and ordered the rebellion leaders transported to Bermuda; this move, popular at first, was later denounced by Lord Brougham and Durham was forced to resign in 1838. In England, he began to compile his famous report on the political situation in the Canadas, which was leaked to the London Times, then released to the British Parliament in 1839. The report, entitled Report on the Affairs of British North America, from the Earl of [page 568] Durham, Her Majesty’s High Commissioner. 31 January 1839. (Upper Canada. House of Assembly. Journal. 13th Parliament. 4th Session, Appendix Vol. 1, 1839), better known as the “Durham Report,” approved of increased responsibility for local issues of governance, but inflamed public opinion by advocating the assimilation of French Canadians into British colonial culture.
Sir Francis Bond Head (1793-1875), served in the Napoleonic Wars and began his life-long career as a travel writer before his 1835 patronage appointment as lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada—a post previously held by Sir John Colborne. The inexperienced Bond Head was something of a maverick; he released his instructions from Lord Glenelg to the public, and taunted prominent reformers including William Lyon Mackenzie and Marshall Spring Bidwell into open military rebellion in 1837. After quashing that Upper Canadian rebellion on 7 December 1837, Bond Head briefly worked to strengthen the border militia against the possibility of an attack by Mackenzie’s supporters in the United States before resigning.
Report of 22 January 1844: The third recommendation, which Scott leaves out of his summary, involves the appointment of an accountant, at a salary of £200. He also leaves out the following sentence, affixed to the end of the second recommendation regarding the Chief Clerk: “It will be necessary that the person holding this office shall possess active habits, and enlarged and philanthropic views upon the subject of ameliorating the condition of the Indian Tribes, and be qualified to assist in forming and perfecting measures for that object.” See Report on the affairs of the Indians in Canada, 38.
location tickets of occupancy: A certificate showing a certain interest in parcel of land within a reserve. A location ticket of occupancy is not, however, the sale as a title in fee simple, as reserve lands cannot be alienated by their occupants without the permission of the Department of Indian Affairs. See Sections 17-21 of The Indian Act (1880) for contemporary legislation concerning location tickets of occupancy.
Indian Affairs, 1867-1912
Scott’s third essay printed in Canada and its Provinces. Vol. 7, Section 4, “The Dominion.” Adam Shortt and Arthur G. Doughty, eds. (Toronto: [page 569] Glasgow, Brook, 1914). “I am enclosing the third and last installment of my work on the History. I trust that you will find it acceptable” (Scott to Prof. Adam Shortt, 14 February, 1912).
British North American Act, section 91: See 30 and 31 Victoria, c.3., An Act for the Union of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, and the Government thereof; and for Purposes connected therewith (The Constitution Act  29 March 1867). As Scott says, section 91 “gave the Dominion power to legislate for ‘Indians and lands reserved for the Indians’” and thus reduced the duplication and services and discrepancies amongst services after the Maritime Provinces joined the Dominion. The quoted phrase, ‘Indians and lands reserved for the Indians,’ is clause 24 of section 91.
British Columbia: Under the terms of the Constitution Act (see above), British Columbia joined the Dominion on 16 May 1871, by Order of Her Majesty in Council. Scott cites section 13 of this document in his essay, and refers in passing to section 10, which enabled British Columbia to legislate for ‘Indians and lands reserved for the Indians,’ in the same manner as did the other members of the Dominion. The full text of section 10 reads as follows:
10. The provisions of the “British North America Act, 1867” shall (except those parts thereof which are in terms made, or by reasonable intendment may be held to be specially applicable to and only affect one and not the whole of the Provinces now comprising the Dominion, and except so far as the same may be varied by this Minute) be applicable to British Columbia in the same way and to the like extent as they apply to the other Provinces of the Dominion, and as if they colony of British Columbia had been one of the Provinces originally united by the said Act.
“a Dominion Act  which consolidated previous acts…of Indian legislation”: Scott refers to 31 Victoria (1868) Cap. 42 (Canada). An Act Providing for the Organisation of the Department of Secretary of State of Canada, and for the Management of Indian and Ordnance Lands (assented to 22 May 1868). See Derek Smith’s Canadian Indians and the Law: Selected Documents, 1663-1972 (Ottawa: Carleton UP, 1975), 64-73.
“inside” and “outside” service: See “The Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada,” where Scott makes the following distinction regarding the Department of his day: “The administration is carried [page 570] out at headquarters by the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs and a staff of seventy-five. The Outside Service is carried on by two Indian Commissioners, one in the prairie provinces and one in British Columbia, and by a staff of Inspectors, Indian Agents, Medical Officers, Teachers, Farming Instructors, Constables and so forth.”
Robinson: See Scott’s “Indian Affairs, 1840-1867.”
J.A.N. Provencher: Joseph-Alfred-Norbert Villebrun dit Provencher (1843-1887) trained as a laywer by became an editor of Montreal’s La Minerve. Following an unsuccessful bid for a federal seat, in 1869 Provencher was appointed William McDougall’s secretary. Upon attempting to take up his new duties as secretary to the new lieutenant governor of the North-West Territories at the Red Rivers, he was promptly imprisoned by Riel and his party, but was released unharmed. Provencher also served as commissioner in the Department of Indian Affairs from 1873 to 1876, during the negotiations over Treaty 3 (1873).
“the half-breed disturbance of 1870 in Manitoba”: See the notes on Lous Riel in Scott’s “Lord Strathcona.”
Hon. Alexander Morris (1826-1889) was a lawyer and an important figure in the Presbyterian Church of Canada whose ten-year political career began in 1861 with his election to the riding of Lanard South. Morris’ pro-Confederation stance assured him a key cabinet position as minister of inland revenue in Macdonald’s government in 1869. Morris worked as lieutenant governor of the North-West Territories from 1872 to 1876. During this period, he was a negotiator and signatory of Treaties 3, 4, 5, and 6, and revised Treaties 1 and 2. Morris’ record in Indian affairs in rendered suspect by certain large land purchases in the Winnipeg area, and his failure to obtain redress or legal recognition for the Métis people of Manitoba. The painter, Edmund Morris, was the son of Alexander Morris. Edmund Morris traveled in the west between the years of 1907 and 1910. See The Diaries of Edmund Montague Morris: Western Journeys, 1907-1910, transcribed by Mary Fitz-Gibbon (Toronto: ROM, 1985). Scott’s poem, “Lines in Memory of Edmund Morris,” was an elegy for a friend who was, for a time, in 1906, an unofficial member of the Treaty 9 party.
the chief who spoke on October 3, 1873, at the conclusion of the treaty: Scott quotes the words of Mawe-do-pe-nais at length. See Alexander Morris’ The Treaties with the Indians of Manitoba, The North-West [page 571] Territories, and Kee-Wa-Tin, in the Dominion of Canada, 75, for the full text of the negotiations. The man who said, “the sound of the rustling of the gold is under my feet where I stand” is identified only as “Chief” in Morris’ volume (62); he may be either Powhassan or Mawe-do-pe-nais, since both men were present.
Ontario boundary dispute: See 52-53 Victoria, c. 28, An Act to declare the Boundaries of the Province of Ontario in the Dominion of Canada [Canada (Ontario Boundary Act, 1889)] for the legal solution to this dispute.
Privy Council: The members of the Queen’s Privy Council of Canada, including cabinet ministers and the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada, are appointed for life by the Governor General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Council releases Orders-in-Council, which may announce appointments or legislation referring to Parliamentary Acts.
Hon. James McKay: See Scott’s “Indian Affairs, 1840-1914.”
Hon. David Laird: Journalist David Laird (1833-1914) began his political career in municipal politics, but advanced quickly to the House of Commons after Prince Edward Island was admitted to the Dominion of Canada—negotiations in which he acted as a delegate. Laird served as lieutenant-governor and Indian commissioner of the North-West Territories and participated in treaty-making on Sept. 22, 1877 at the crossing of the Bow River. He later acted in an advisory capacity to the department in Ottawa, and wrote papers on treat-making, such as his 1905 “Our Indian Treaties.”
Samuel Steward: Scott and Samuel Stewart are both signatories of the James Bay Treaty, but similarities between the James Bay Treaty (commonly attributed to Scott) and passages in the journal that Stewart kept on the 1906 and 1907 treaty trips suggest that he wrote the official report.
W.J. Christie: William Joseph Christie (1824-1899), was a clerk in the Hudson’s Bay Company who was promoted in the company ranks to the position of inspecting chief factor— a position second only to Chief Commissioner Donald Smith (see Scott’s “Lord Strathcona”). After resigning from the Hudson’s Bay Company, Christie worked as a commissioner on Treaty 4 and Treaty 6.
“half-breed rebellion of 1885”: Scott refers to the second or North-west Rebellion of 1885, instigated by Métis Leaders Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont on behalf of the Métis and other persons, including plains Indians in need of provisions due to the failure of the buffalo.[page 572] On March 18, 1885, Riel and Dumont formed a provisional government at Batoche. Political prisoners were taken by the rebels at Duck Lake on March 26, and in the ensuing battle between the North-West Mounted Police and the Métis, 12 whites, 5 Métis and one Indian died. At Frog Lake, near Big Bear’s encampment, a militant group of Cree captured and killed nine people on April 2, 1885. Cut Knife Creek was the site of another battle, where eight soldiers and six Natives were slain. The rebellion—in which over 5,000 soldiers and police were involved—came to an end with the surrender of Big Bear on 2 July. Riel and eight Indians were hanged; members of the provisional government and Native leaders were jailed; and Dumont sought asylum in the United States. See Hugh A. Dempsey’s Big Bear: The End of Freedom (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1984) for another view of these events.
Poundmaker: Pitikwahanapiwiyin, or Poundmaker’s (c. 1842-1886) was a powerful Plains Cree chief. Despite his misgivings about the terms of the Fort Carlton treaty, Pitikwahanapiwiyin was one of the 23 August 1876 treaty’s signatories and settled on a reserve near Cut Knife Creek in 1879. After a reduction in rations and a severe winter in 1883-84, a large Thirst Dance was held with members of Big Bear’s band to discuss the situation of the Plains Indians. During the ceremony, a farm instructor was assaulted, and Poundmaker was taken into custody for a brief period. Following the Duck Lake incident in 1885, Poundmaker’s band raided the Battleford Indian Agency for promised provisions. Poundmaker prevented great casualties at Cut Knife Creek, where he exercised his authority to keep his warriors from pursuing the fleeing opposition.
Big Bear, or Mistahimaskwa (c. 1825-1888), Plains Cree chief. Big Bear refused to sign Alexander Morris’ 1876 Treaty 6 or to settle on a reserve, electing instead to move his band south into Montana to hunt the last buffalo from 1879 to 1882. After the buffalo failed to return in 1882, the band moved north again, and Big Bear was forced to sign Treaty 6 in order to obtain provisions for his people. In speeches at Duck Lake and Carlton in 1884, Big Bear argued for a united Native front to combat treaty encroachments, and for an Indian representative of Native peoples in federal government. After the failure of the rebellion in 1885, Big Bear gave himself up and was sentenced to three years in Stony Mountain Penitentiary. He died shortly after returning to the Poundmaker reserve in 1888.[page573]
Edgar Dewdney: Dewdney’s report to the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, North-West Territories, was made on 2 January, 1880. The passage Scott cited occurs on page 78 of 43 Victoria Sessional Papers, vol. 3, No. 4.A 1880. Second Session of the Fourth Parliament of the Dominion of Canada. Session 1880. (Ottawa, MacLean, Roger, 1880). In the course of the report, Dewdney notes, “While at [Fort] Carlton, I held an interview with the chiefs “Ke-too-wa-han,” “Ah-tuk-uk-koop” and “Mist-ow-as-is.” A very exhaustive report of the interviews was published in the Montreal Gazette, and was perfectly correct...[they] appeared to me to have substantial grievances” (87) Scott observes that two of these men, Mistawasis and Ahtahkakoop, did not rebel with Poundmaker.
Blackfoot crossing treaty: The negotiations of 1877 at the Blackfoot crossing terminated in Treaty No. 7. Parts of assiniboia and Alberta District, N.W. T. See Canada. Indian Treaties and Surrenders from 1680 to 1890 (Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, 1905) for details of this (Vol. II, 56-62) and other treaties.
enfranchisement: See notes to Scott’s “The Red Indian” concerning enfranchisement; for the related issue of legal definition of Indian identity, see the notes to “The Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada.”
Charter of 1846, under which the Hudson’s Bay company held Vancouver Island: Scott refers to the Royal Charter of 13 January 1849. See the Preface of Minutes of the Council of Vancouver Island, 1851-61 (Victoria: William H. Cullin, Printer to the Kings’ Most excellent Majesty, 1918) for further information.
Sir James Douglas (1803-1877) was originally apprenticed as clerk to the North West Company, and began his long career with the Hudson’s Bay Company when the rival fur trading companies merged in 1821. His wife, Amelia Connolly, was the mixed-blood daughter of Chief Factor William Connolly. Douglas was sent to the HBD post of Fort Vancouver in 1830, where he was promoted to chief factor. In 1843, he began building Fort Victoria on nearby Vancouver Island; the Island continued to be the property of the HBC (see “charter” above) until the 1858 gold rush. Douglas became governor of the crown colony of British Columbia when it was established in 1858, after leaving the HBC.
Potlatch: See “The administration of Indian Affairs in Canada.”
Rev. George Duncan, Metlakatla: The location in British Columbia of Duncan’s exercise in social exercise in social engineering. According to E. Brian [page 574] Titley, Metlakatla “became a model village in which almost everything , from rules and regulations to architecture...was based on the standards of Victorian England. Indian customs were forbidden, and strict rules were imposed requiring religious observance, school attendance, cleanliness, industriousness, abstinence from alcohol, and other trappings of the Protestant ethic” (35).
“the notorious massacres in Minnesota”: The Sioux (Dakota or Lakota) uprisings of 1862, prompted by broken treaty promises concerning provisions, treaty money, and land sovereignty. Led by Little Crow (1810-1863), also known as Tayoyateduta [His Red Nation], the Sioux raided Minnesota towns such as New Ulm, and killed between 400 and 800 settlers and soldiers before their defeat by the forces led by Henry Sibley (1811-1891).
Battle of Little Bighorn: See the notes to Scott’s “Introduction, Amelia Paget, People of the Plains.”
Nicholas Flood Davin: Davin (1843-1901) was an Irish-born lawyer and newspaper reporter who worked for both the Toronto Globe and the Toronto Mail before accepting a series of Conservative patronage appointments. His report on the system of Indian education adopted y the United States was made after a trip to Washington in 1878-9. He later represented West Assiniboia in the House of Commons, where his radical 1895 [proposal that (some) women should be enfranchised was unfortunately voted down.
tuberculosis: See “The Administration of Indian Affairs,” where Scott’s defensiveness about the Government’s record in aboriginal medical matters may reflect the attack of P.H. Boyce, The Story of a National Crime: Being An Appeal for Justice to the Indians of Canada. Boyce, former medical inspector for the Department of the Interior, denounced Scott for indifferenc3e to the medical needs of the natives for whom he was responsible.
“alienation of reserved property” “Alienation” is used here as euphemism for “sell.”
Exchequer Court of Canada: This court, which deals with matters of federal taxation, copyright , and law of the sea, has been known as the Federal Court of Canada since 1971. Scott mentions an amendment to the Indian Act giving the governor in council power to refer to the Judge of the Exchequer. The full text of this amendment to Chapter 81, The Indian Act. R. S., c. 43, s. 1. Is appended below: [pg 575]
A49A. in the case of an Indian reserve which adjoins or is situated wholly or partly within an incorporated town or city having a population of not less than eight thousand, and which reserve has not been released or surrendered by the Indians,, the Governor in Council may, upon the recommendation of the Superintendent General, refer to the judge of the Exchequer Court of Canada for inquiry and report the question as to whether it is expedient, having regard to the interest of the public and of the Indians of the band for whose use the reserve is held, that the Indians should be removed from the reserve or any part of it.
“devise of property”: “Devise’ is a legal term referring to a gift of land or property left in a will.
“intestacy”: Legally, the result of dying intestate, or without a will.
“certain aboriginal dances”: Scott is referring to ceremonies like the Western Sun Dance, or thirst Dance, one dimension of which is warrior making. See “The Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada.”
Indian Advancement Act: The Indian Advancement Act, 1884, was assented to 19 April, 1884, and amended in 1890.
36 Vict. Cap. 24: Scott makes a mistake in this legal citation; the creation of the department of the Interior is actually dealt with in 36 Victoria Cap. 4, An Act to provide for the establishment of “The Department of the Interior,” assented to 3 May 1873. Section 3 reads: “ The Minister of the Interior shall be Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, and shall, as such, have the control and management of the lands and property of the Indians in Canada” (6). See Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, of great Britain & Ireland, Passed in the Sessions held in the 35th and 36th and 37th Years of the Reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, Being the fourth and Fifth Sessions of the twentieth Parliament of the United Kingdom (Ottawa: Brown Chamberlin, 1873), 5-7.
43 Vict. Cap. 28: The fourth clause of 43 Victoria (1880) An Act to amend and consolidate the laws respecting Indians (assented to 7 May 1880) reads as follows:
4. There shall be Department of the Civil Service of Canada to be called the Department of Indian Affairs, over which the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs shall reside. [page 576]
See Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, of Great Britain & Ireland, Passed in the Session held in the 42nd & 43rd Years of the Reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, Being the Sixth Session of the Twentieth Parliament of the United Kingdom (Ottawa: Brown Chamberlin, 1880), 204.
Hayter Reed: Major Hayter Reed (b. 1849) was a militia man, who served with the Provincial Battalion of Rifles in Manitoba in 1871 before joining the Department of the Interior in 1888. within the department , he rose from the position of Indian agent in Battleford to deputy superintendent-general of Indian Affairs (1893-7).
James A. Smart: James Allan Smart (b. 1858) was a business man who began his political career by election as an alderman in Brandon, Manitoba. Smart served as deputy Minister of the Interior (where he worked to reform English-Canadian emigration agencies) and as deputy superintendent-general of Indian Affairs from 1897 to 1904, when he returned to private business, and began a company dealing in land for emigrants.
George Bernard Shaw
“I am working away at an address on G.B.S. for the [Ottawa] drama league,” Scott wrote to Pelham Edgar on 6 January, 1914,” ―this public life is highly distasteful!” on 23 january, Scott wrote Edgar that” I have just got GBS off my mind [,] a considerable effort form me so unaccustomed to writing.” The address was never published. A typescript is in the Scott/ Alen papers in the National Archives. The opening portion of the address, which gives a brief character sketch of Shaw and details his literary productions to date, probably originates in an early biography. H.L. Mencken’s George Bernard Shaw, His Plays (1905) seems alikely candidate, as the mix of performance dates and critical information offered in its final chapters closely parallels Scott’s opening. The dazzling variety of Shaviana on which Scott has drawn for the thirty-eight quotations in this address “can actually be traced to one source: Charlotte Shaw’s Selected Passages from the Works for Bernard Shaw (Toronto: Bell and Cockburn, c. 1910). If it were not for his clever interpretive juxtaposition of Shaw and Heine, it might be tempting to imagine Scott’s lengthy address to “the advanced elect” of the Drama Leagueas nothing more than a bravado piece of patchwork. [page 577]
“You have your nicely buttered little problem…”: “The God of Fine Ladies.” The Academy. 29 June 1907; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 8. Where volume refernces appear below, the reference is to the 1970-4 Bodley Head edition of Shalw’s complete plays and prefaces.
“I am convinced that fine art is the subtlest, the most seductive, the most effective means of moral propagandism in the world…”: Mrs. Warren’s Profession, Vol. I, 236, “The Author’s Apology.
“I have, I think, always been a Puritan in my attitude towards Art”: Preface, Three Plays for Puritans, Vol. II, 27.
“In this preface to the plays of the famous Frenchman Brieux Shaw writes ―’ Life as it occurs…’”: See Three Plays by Brieux, with Preface by Bernard Shaw (NY: Brentano’s, 1907), page xxv of the preface.
Shakespeare’s “There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so”: comes from Hamlet, Act II, scene ii. Shaw’s “echo” of this sentiment, “Morality means custom
And it is custom that tyrannizes over most people’s minds” may be found in Shaw’s correspondence, Selected Passages from the works of Bernard Shaw, 164.
“The change that came to me at thirteen was the birth in me of moral passion…”: Man and Superman, Vol. II, 571.
“Those who have felt earthquakes assure us that there is not terror like the terror of the earth…”: Preface, Three Plays by Brieux; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 237.
“Any fool can scoff. The serious matter is which side you scoff at”: The Nation. 2 April 1910; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 46.
“You cannot believe in honor until you have achieved it…”: Man and Superman, “The Revolutionist’s Handbook and Pocket Companion,” Vol. II, 787.
“I have a professional reason for not drinking alcohol…”: The Review of Reviews. February 1908, 145-6; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 186-7.
“I have not eaten meat for twenty-seven years…”: The Review of Reviews. February 1908, 145; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 187.
Scott’s source for Mrs. Clement Shorter’s words, “Mr. Bernard Shaw is a very lucky man. He is endowed with a very nimble wit and a big intelligence” (if this is indeed a quotation) remains unknown. [page 578]
“Humanity is neither a commercial nor a political speculation, but a condition of noble life”: “Civilization and the Soldier.” The Humane Review, January 1901, 32; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 17.
“Cleopatra. When I was foolish, I did what I liked…”: Caesar and Cleopatra, Vol. II, 256.
“You must never say that the knowledge of how to live without happiness…”: Correspondence; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 88-9.
“Morell, Man can climb to the highest summits…”: Candida, Vol I, 578.
Walt Whitman’s expression, “to fill up the time while waiting for a boat”: Scott reworks a line from Whitman’s “Song of Myself,” which appeared untitled in the 1855 edition of Leaves of Grass: “I do not say these things for a dollar or to fill up the time while I wait for a boat” (47).
“Bunyan, Blake, Hogarth and Turner (these four apart and above all the English classics)…”: Man and Superman; “Epistle Dedicatory,” Vol. II, 519.
“That is the true joy in life…”: Man and Superman; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 27.
The Notorious Mrs. Ebbsmith and The Second Mrs. Tanquerey: plays by English playwright Sir Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), published in 1895 and 1893 respectively. Scott also mentions a play by English playwright William Stanley Houghton (1881-1913), Hindle Wakes (1912), and Harley Granville-Barker’s play, The Madras House (1910). Granville-Barker (1877-1946) was also an actor and served as manager of the Court Theatre from 1904 to 1907. John Galsworthy (1867-1933), here mentioned as the author of the play Justice (1910), is perhaps better known as a novelist and author of The Forsyte Saga (1922).
sandwich men: Persons carrying boards bearing advertising copy slung over their shoulders.
“Steam locomotion is possible without a nation of Stephensons, although national Christianity is impossible without a nation of Christs”: Man and Superman, “The Revolutionist’s handbook and Pocket Companion,” Vol. II, 774.
Bergson: Henri Bergson (1859-1941) Nobel Prize-winning French philosopher whose teachings regarding the “Life Force” and the [page 579] world’s material oppositions to it were enthusiastically adopted by Shaw in such plays as Man and Superman.
“Until there is an England in which every man is a Cromwell….”: Man and Superman, “The Revolutionist’s Handbook and Pocket Companion,” Vol. II, 571.
“The majority of men at present in Europe have no business to be alive…”: Major Critical Essays: the Quintessence of Ibenism, The Perfect Wagnerite, The Sanity of Art (London: Constable, 1932), 222.
“I do not approve of private property in land, and I regard the appropriation…”: Correspondence; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 157.
“A character in one of his plays cries out― ‘Poverty. The worst of crimes. All the other crimes are virtues beside it…’”: Major Barbara, Vol. III, 172. The character in question is Undershaft, and Scott misquotes slightly. Undershalft responds to Cusins’ question “Do you call poverty a crime?” by saying, “The worst of crimes. All the other crimes are virtues beside it: all the other dishonors are chivalry itself by comparison.”
“I am not bound to keep my temper with an imposture so outrageous…”: The Daily News. 8 December 1904; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 74.
sycophantic: Toady-like; servile and self-interested.
Barnato: Barnett (Isaacs) Barnato (1852-1897) was a British comedian who later made millions by working abandoned South African diamond mines. Barnato exerted considerable influence on political life in South Africa. He committed suicide. Shaw’s point in this paragraph is that the social, political, and economic success enjoyed by figures such as Barnato, Liane de Pougy (1869-1950), and Lord Henry William Paget Anglesey (1768-1854) are not equivalent to moral success, and that none of these factors should determine income within a socialist system, since socialism assumes that all persons are equally entitled to a living wage.
“History, as far as we are capable of history (which is not saying much as yet), shews that all changes…”: Critical Essays, 222.
Married Women’s Property Act: An act of British Parliament passed in 1882 during William Gladstone’s administration. Under this act, married women gained the same rights over their property as single women; previously, a woman’s property became her husband’s upon marriage.
“When, in addressing an ordinary religious audience, I have occasion to speak of the force which they call the Will of God, and which I myself have called the Life force…”: This quotation is taken from Shaw’s letter of 15 October 1909 to Julia Moore. See Bernard Shaw: Collected Letters 1898-1910 (Ed. Dan H. Laurence. London: Max Reinhardt, 1972), 873.
“I suggest to you that the reason why we. . .”: Man and Superman; Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 125.
“Just as life…”: Man and Superman, Vol. II, 663.
“I tell you that as long as I can conceive…”: Man and Superman, Vol. II, 679.
“To ask me to be reverent, with whatever moving appeals to good taste…”: Unpublished’ Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 224.
Heine: See Scott’s address on Heinrich Heine. Note that the last lines of this article paraphrase Heine.
“Napoleon. No Englishman is too low to have scruples: no Englishman is high enough to be free from their tyranny…”: The Man of Destiny, Vol. I 658.
Women begin to be socially tolerable at thirty, and improve until the deepening of thief consciousness is checked…”: The Saturday Review. 13 March 1897’ Selected Passages from the Works of Bernard Shaw, 289.
“A woman like Candida has divine insight: she loves our souls, and not our follies…”: Candida, Vol. I, 578. Marchbanks’ line actually reads, “A woman like that…”; Scott substitutes the character’s name for clarity’s sake.
“If we have come to think that the nursery and the kitchen are the natural spehere…”: “The Quintessence of Ibsenism,” Critical Essays, 39.
“The persons of my plays are all right from their several points of view”: Man and Superman, “Episode Dedicatory,” Vol. II, 517. This is a misquote. Shaw writes,”…I disclaim the fullest responsibility for his [Don Juan’s] opinions and for those of all my charcters, pleasant and unpleasant. They are all right from their several points of view; and their points of view are, for the dramatic moment, mine also.”
“Shakespeare’s “Injurious time now, with a robber’s haste, / Crams his rich thievery up, he knows not how….”: Troilus and Cressida, Act IV, scene iv. [page 581]
“The end of Pompilia in The Ring and the Book. ‘ So, let him wait God’s instant men call years’”: This excerpt from Browning’s poem occurs five lines from the end of book VII. The Complete Poetical Works of Robert Browning. Augustine Birrell, ed. (NY: Macmillan, 1925), 802. Browning’s words “Pray / Lead us into no such temptations, Lord” are taken from the same poem, from the section titled “The Pope,” 854.
“Do you suppose heaven is like earth, where people persuade themselves that what is done can be undone by repentance…”: Man and Superman, Vol. II, 650.
“When a man wants to murder a tiger he calls it sport: when the tiger wants to murder him he calls it ferocity”: Man and Superman, The Revolutionist’s Handbook and Pocket Companion,” Vol, II, 786.
Synge: John Millington Synge (1871-1909), was an Irish dramatist, known for such plays as The Playboy of the Western World (1907), and co-director and founder of the Abbey Theatre in 1902.
the Fabian Society: Founded in 1884, this British socialist group was dedicated to social reform of extant political and social institutions. The modern British Labour party has its roots in this society. The critic who wrote about a New York production (the first) of Shaw’s 1893 play The Philandrer, “‘Mr. Shaw’s favourite contention, used in what our ancestors used to call ‘the love-chase,’ the woman is more often the pursuer than the pursued…’” The reviewer’s identity remains unknown; Shaw’s contention that love is “a tragic-comic love chase of the man by the woman” occurs in the “Epistle Dedicatory” to Man and Superman, Vol. II, 507.
Relation of Indians to Wild Life Conservation
This address was printed in the volume National Conference on Conservation of Game, Fur-Bearing Animals and Other Wild Life (Ottawa: King’s Printer, 1919). Scott’s brief presentation was followed by a lengthy discussion with delegates from the provinces. The Indian Affairs Department came under fire from delegates who thought that unrestricted Indian hunting was not fair to other Canadians restricted by conservation measure. The most vociferous was F. Bradshaw, Provincial Game Guardian, Saskatchewan, whose [page 582]counter-presentation was bolstered by letters from disgruntled hunters.
“Usufructuary title”: This term refers to the right of enjoying the use and advantage of another’s property, given that such use does not destroy or dplete the property in question. This concept forms the basis of Canadian wild life policy, which considers that wild life is a resource which the people of Canada hold in common. Canadians enjoy usufructuary title to wild life with the provision that wild life is managed so that furutre generatiosn may also benefit from this resource.
The Canadian Indians and the Great World War
Published in Canada in the Great World War: an Authentic Account of the Military History of Canada From the Earliest Days to the Close of the War of the Nations, by Various Authorities. Vol. III, Guarding the Channel Ports (Toronto: United Publishers of Canada, 1919), Scott’s essay is illustrated with photographs of Indian recruits, and of a “Flag Presented tot he 114th Battalion by the Six Nations Women’s Patriotic League.” Much of this essay was forming between 1914 and 1919 in Scott’s Department of Indian Affairs Annual Reports (Canada: Sessional Papers), in the section entitled for three years (1915 to 1918) “‘The War,” then (in 1919) “‘The Indians and the War,” and finally (in 1920) “‘ The Indians and the Great War.” This section of the 1920 report is not much different from the essay. A statistical table omitted (see ellipsis) from the essay appears exactly as it does int eh report. Bits of a number of the other essays on the Indians in this volume were borrowed from Indian Affairs reports, or vice versa. For an account f this self-plagiarizing, see Stan Dragland, Floating Voice, 106-8.
Six Nation[s] Confederacy: A political confederacy made up of the Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, Onondaga, Mohawk and Tuscarora first nations. The Tuscarora, who became members of the Confederacy around 1722, were the last to join the Five Nations, as they were previously known, The six nations reserve is located outside Brantford, Ontario. [page 583]
Joseph Brant: See Scott’s “The Last of the Indian Treaties” and “Indian Affairs 1763-1841.”
aboriginal title: See the notes to Scott’s “The Last of the Indian Treaties” for definitions of reserve lands and legal title. Note further that the Indian Act, Section 20 (1), (Allotting Possession of Lands in Reserves to Indians), states: “No Indian is lawfully in possession of land in a reserve unless, with the approval of the Minister, possession of the land has been allotted to him by the council of the band.” This definition of title does not include “designated lands.” See also the Land Titles Act for additional legislation affecting aboriginal title.
The “supreme test” in 1775: A reference to the War of Independence fought between Britain and the United States.
1812: For a discussion of the capture of Detroit and Native involvement in the other events of the War of 1812, Scott refers the reader to Volume I, page 126 of the series, Canada in the Great World War: an Authentic Account of the Military History of Canada From the Earliest Days to the Close of the War of the Nations.
Provisions of the Treaty of Ghent: Scott refers obliquely to Article Nine of the 1814 Treaty of Ghent between Britain and the United States. This provision states: “The United States of America engage to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations of Indians with whom they may be at war at the time of such Ratification, and forth with to restore to such Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against the United States of America, their Citizens, and Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly. And His Britannic Majesty engages on his part to put an end immediately after the Ratification of the present Treaty to hostilities with all the Tribes or Nations respectively all the possessions, rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed or been entitled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven previous to such hostilities. Provided always that such Tribes or Nations shall agree to desist from all hostilities against His Britannic Majesty and His Subjects upon the Ratification of the present Treaty being notified to such Tribes or Nations, and shall so desist accordingly.” For the full text of the Treaty of Ghent, which principally concerns disputed boundaries between British North America and the United States, see Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America. Hunter Miller, ed. (Washington: Government Publications, 1931).
“commendatory despatch from Lord Glenelg to Sir John Colborne”: See Canada in the Great World War, Vol. I, 205.
“special educational advantages” provided to Natives: Sections 109-22 of the Indian Act govern education for Native children from age 7 to 16 (and, at the Minister’s discretion, children aged 6 to 18 as well). This federal model is unusual, since education in Canada is provincially and municipally-funded and governed. Scott, however, is most likely referring to the practice of offering post-secondary tuition relief, scholarships, and living allowances to status Indians through the co-operation of the department of Indian Affairs and local band councils, a practice which continues to the present day, and has been expanded to include the Inuit, who were not covered under the Indian Act. Such funds are considered to be “situated on reserve,” and therefore are not subject to taxation.
enfranchisement: Native people did not receive the vote in Canada until 1960; see the notes to Scott’s “The Red Indian” for details on the voluntary and involuntary enfranchisement.
Fort William and Port Arthur: These two towns now form the city of Thunder Bay, Ontario.
exclusion of Indians from Military Service Act and census: As Scott indicates, an Order-in-Council passed on 17 January 1918 exempting Indians from conscripted military service, as per previous treaty agreements. The relevant part of this Order reads: “Whereas petitions and memorials have been received from and on behalf of Indians point out that in view of their not having any right to vote, they should, although natural born British subjects, not be compelled to perform military service, and that in the negotiations of certain treaties expression were used indicating that Indians would not be so compelled, an instance [sic] of this recently brought forward...Any Indian agent may make application for the exemption of any Indian attached to the Reserve over which such agent has jurisdiction...[T]he Registrar shall forthwith issue to such Indian and transmit to the Indian agent for delivery to him a certificate of exemption from combatant military service. In the event of [page 585] any man thus exempted from combatant military service being hereinafter called upon to perform any military duty he may then put forward any claim for exemption even from non-combatant service which he may then have.” For the full text of the Order, see The Canada Gazette 51:30 (26 January 1918, Ottawa), 2507. Despite this exemption, as Scott notes, voluntary Native enlistment was high.
Because of the strictures of the Canadian Privacy Act, further information on the birth and death dates and military careers of the individual men celebrated in Scott’s article is not available. Interested parties should contact the Department of Nation Defense for directions on how to obtain military service records or copies of letters from the front. Personnel files are held by the National Archives of Canada.
Original Firsts: It is uncertain whether Scott is using this term to apply to men who enlisted at the beginning of the war, or to those men enlisted in the First Canadian Division, which landed in France in 1915, or both.
Victoria Cross: Created by Queen Victoria in 1856, this honour is awarded in recognition of military bravery in the presence of the enemy.
Distinguished Conduct Medal: Awarded to Warrant Officers, non-commissioned officers and men for distinguished conduct in the field. The second-highest award for gallantry, after the Victoria Cross.
Military Cross: Awarded to commissioned officers of the rank of Captain or below (or to Warrant Officers) for distinguished services in action.
Military Medal and Bar: Awarded to Warrant officers, non-commissioned officers, and men for individual and associated acts of bravery on recommendation of the Commander-in-Chief in the field. A bar is added to the Military of Medal to signify further acts of bravery.
Canadian “ace,” Billy Bishop: William Avery Bishop (1894-1956), was a famed Canadian pilot—in fact, the most successful Imperial pilot of World War I, and the first Canadian pilot to win a Victoria Cross. Bishop is usually credited with seventy-two successes, but the Department of National Defense suggests that, including credited aircraft, balloons, and unconfirmed aircraft, Bishop may have shot or disabled as many as eighty flying machines during his period of service. [Page 586]
Carlisle Indian University: Carlisle Indian School in Carlisle, Pennsylvania was the first off-reserve Indian school in the United States. The school was open from 1879 to 1918; one of its most famous graduates was runner, football hero and all-round athlete Jim Thorpe.
“an Indian battalion”: Scott may be referring to the 114th Canadian Infantry Battalion, which had 2 companies made up solely of Indians, most from the Six nations. However, the 114th was disbanded when it arrived in Britain in 1916.
Vimy Ridge: From April 9 to 14, 1917, Canadian forces routed German troops from a ridgetop position in France. Following unsuccessful attempts by British and French forces, the Canadian victory was costly but effective in boosting national morale.
Hill 70: Hill 70 lay north of Lens, France, in a strategic location along the German front. The site was won and held by Canadian troops under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Currie on August 15, 1917.
Passchendaele: From October 26 to November 7, 1917, Canadian troops suffered heavy casualties as they fought a prolonged, but ultimately successful battle against German forces while mired in a sea of Belgian mud.
Louis Riel: See the notes to Scott’s “Lord Strathcona” for details on Riel’s role as political leader of the Métis.
No Man’s Land: The disputed territory lying between opposing forces during a war, which either party must cross in an attack.
Tom Longboat: Thomas Longboat (1887-1949) was an Onondaga runner famous for winning the Boston marathon in 1907 in a then-record time of 2 hours, 24 minutes, 20.2 seconds.
Governor-General of Canada: The holder of this appointed position is considered to be the British monarch’s representative in Canada. The Governor-General functions as the ceremonial head of government, giving royal assent to bills which have passed through the House of Commons and the Senate. During the First World War, this position was filled by two men in succession. The first was Queen Victoria’s third son, Arthur William Patrick Albert, first Duke of Connaught and Stratheran (1850-1943), who made his presence felt through much political interference during his period of office, 1911-6. The second, and much more timid, man to fill the post was Victor Christian William Cavendish, ninth Duke of Devonshire (1868-1938), who served from 1916 to 1921. [page 587]
Victory Loan: This term, which came into use in 1917, describes the sale of bonds during World War I (and again in World War II) to the public to finance the national war effort.
Belgian Relief, Patriotic, Red Cross funds: The Canadian Red Cross was first formed in affiliation with the British Red Cross on 12 October 1896, and gained independent status in 1919. The Toronto Branch alone raised well over 4 million dollars for the purchase of bandages, medical supplies and comforts such as parcels of food for the soldiers and prisoners of war. The Canadian Patriotic Fund, which collected money from numerous local branches throughout the country for the maintenance of active soldiers’ families and for disability allowances, had reached over 25 million dollars by March of 1917. The Belgian Relief Fund, intended for the purchase of food, medicine, and other supplies for the citizens of Belgiusm, had gathered over 2.6 million by the same time. Funds also existed for war victims in Serbia, Poland, and France. See Canada in the Great World War: An Authentic Account of the Military History of Canada from the Earliest Days to the Close of the War of the Nations. Vol. II (Toronto: United Publishers of Canada, 1918).
unceded portion of Manitoulin Island: Manitoulin Island is a unique piece of political geography, in 1836, Lieutenant-Governor Francis Bond Head negotiated a treaty with Manitoulin Ojibwa which would allow other Indians to settle on the land there, but few did. After further negotiations, the Manitoulin Island Treaty was signed on 6 October 1862; however, this treaty does not include the Wikwemikong Peninsula and the east of Heywood Sound or the people of this area. Thus, part of Manitoulin Island, since it was never ceded to the Crown, remains a sovereign nation. For the text of the treaty, see Morris’ Treaties of Canada With The Indians, 309-12.
Walter Savage Landor
This address is previously unpublished. “I have promised to speak before the University Club some Sunday afternoon on Walter Savage Landor and I suppose I shall have to be getting something ready,” Scott wrote to Pelham Edgar, 15 January, 1919.
Mount Parnassus: A Greek mountain sacred to Apollo and the Muses, Mount Parnassus is often associated with poets. [page 588]
Pericles and Aspasia: An epistolary work by Landor first published in 1836 by Saunders and Oteley, London.
Count Julian: A play by Landor. Given the proximity of these two titles in Scott’s essay, he is most likely making reference to the following edition: Gerbir and Count Julian (London: Cassell, 1887). Gebir, which Scott misspells as Geber throughout this address, was Landor’s first successful epic poem, originally published in 1798.
Citation and examination of William Shakespeare: The full title of this piece by Landor is: Citation and examination of William Shakespeare [sic], Euseby Treen, Joseph Carnaby and Silas Gough, clerk, before the worshipful Sir Thomas Lucy, knight, touching deer-stealing on the 19th day of September in the year of Grace 1282, now first published from original papers. To which is added a conference of Master Edmund Spenser, a gentleman of note, with the Earl of Essex touching the state of Ireland, A. D. 1595 (London: Saunders and Otley, 1834). The incident described in the “examination” is fictional.
Colvin: Scott’s references to Sidney Colvin’s work on Landor originate in Landor (London: Macmillan, 1888): the page references below pertain to this volume. Colvin also published a selected works, entitled Selections (London: Macmillan, 1895).
“As Sidney Colvin had said he dwelt ‘upon purely human facts of existence, its natural sorrows and natural consolations’”: The entire quotation reads, “His [Landor’s] freedom from any tincture of mysticism, his love of unconfused shapes and outlines, his easy dismissal of the unfathomable and the unknown, and steady concentration of the mind upon the purely human facts of existence, its natural sorrows and natural consolations, all helped him to find in the life of ancient Greece a harm without alloy, and in her songs and her philosophies a beauty and a wisdom without shortcoming” (191).
“I shall dine late[;] but the dining-room will be well lighted…”: Colvin, 3. Scott omits Colvin’s semicolon.
“That is the prettiest girl [Julia Thuillier]… and I am going to marry her”: Colvin, 58. Landor’s impulsive marriage to Julia Thuillier, a woman sixteen years his junior, was not a success, and the couple separated twice. Scott paraphrases and condenses much of Colvin’s summary of the Landor marriage, and repeats Landor’s comment, “God forbid that I should do otherwise than declare that she always was agreeable to everyone but me” (59). [page 589]
“By heaven, I forgot the violets”: Scott misquotes Colvin, who remders Landor’s exclamation as “Good God, I forgot the violets” (140).
“In a footnote to one of his imaginary conversation…’character is our business’”: Colvin makes refernce to the many anachronisms in Pericles and Aspasia, and states that Landor “did not trouble himself about considerations of this kind, observing rightly enough that Dialogue was not History, and that in a work of imagination some liberties might legitimately be taken with fact” (153).
“I strove with none, for none was worth my strife, / Nature I loved, and next to Nature, Art”: This poem appears in the prefix to Landor’s book of poems, Last Fruit Off an Old Tree (1853). Colvin quotes the first stanza (capitalizing the word “Art” as above) on page 183 of his biography.
“I claim no place in the world of Letters, I am alone…”: The reference here is to Landor’s letter to Lord Brougham on the public neglect of the poet Southey. Landor writes: “I claim no place in the world of letters; I am alone, and will be alone, as long as I live, and after” (qtd. in Colvin 198).
“I never contended with contemporaries, but walked alone on the far eastern uplands…”: Colvin paraphrases this remark on page 219.
“the American sculptor, Storey”: Scott refers to (and misspells the name of) William Wetmore Story (1819-1895), an American lawyer turned neo-classical sculptor and inhabitant of Italy.
John Forster, his biographer: Scott’s reference is to John Forster (1812-1876) and his enormous study, Walter Savage Landor. A Biography. In Eight Books (Boston: Fields, Osgood, & Company, 1869). This biography was authorized by Landor in 1863, but is much livelier than such an endorsement might suggest. Sidney Colvin snipes that Forster is “the least self-forgetful of biographers, and the least capable of keeping his own services in the background” (184), but this in fact constitutes the chief charm of the volume, as Forster’s inclusion of his private letters to Landor and other friends (including Charles Dickens) illuminates Landor’s social circle considerably. The excerpts below are taken from this volume.
“Forster his biographer writes of ‘His fine presence, manly voice, and cordial smile…’”: Actually, Forester used this description as a summary of Ahrles Armitage Brown’s character sketch of Landor [page 590] on pages 549-50 of his biography, although he does agree with Brown’s opinion.
“At the end of his life Browning wrote: ‘And whatever he may profess, the thing he raly loves is a pretty girl to like nonsense with’”: Scott quotes from Forster’s biography, page 66, where Forster reprints a letter written by Browning to himself. The actual wording is: “Whatever he may profess, the thing he really loves is a pretty girl to talk nonsense with; and he finds comfort in American visitors, who hold him in proper respect.”
Dickens, writing of a dinner party at John Forster’s: British writer Charles Dickens (1812-1870), the well-known author of such novels as Oliver Twist (1837) and A Tale of Two Cities (1859). Dickens’ novel, Bleak House (1853) is the tale of an involved legal case―Jarndyce vs. Jarndyce― which lasts until the entire principal of a contested will has been consumed by lawyers.
Forster also edited The Works of Walter Savage Landor. In two volumes (London: Edward Moxon, 1853), the work to which the page numbers below refer. The Works contain all of the Imaginary Conversations, originally published between 1824 and 1853 as Imaginary Cnversations of Greeks and Romans (London: E. Moxon, 1853), and Imaginary Conversations of Literary Men and Statesmen (London: Taylor and Hessey, 1824). These dialogues are supported by often incongruous pairings of figures from myth, politics, philosophy, and the arts. The speech attributed by Scott to the character “Mesala” could not be located in this edition; all other quotations are identified below.
Sidney. Goodness does not more certainly make men happy than happiness makes them good”: This excerpt comes from page four of the imaginary conversation, “ord Broke and Sir Philip Sidney,” (4-9). Grenville Brooke, as Landor explains in a note, was “servant of Queen Elizabeth, counsellor of King James, and friend of sir Philip Sidney” (4). Lord Brooke’s remark, “When a woman hath ceased to be quiet the same to us…” comes from the same dialogue, page , as does Sidney’s metaphor, which is properly punctuated as follows: “Friendship is a vase which when it is flawed by heat or violence or accident, may as well be broken at once; it can never be trusted after. The more graceful and ornamental it was, the more clearly do we discern the hopelessness of restoring it to its former state. Coarse stones, if they are fractured, may be cemented again; precious ones, never” (4). [page 591]
“Barrow. Those who are quite satisfied, sit still and do nothing;…”: This comes from the imaginary conversation between Isaac Newton and his tutor Barrow, in which Newton is worrying about an exam, Vol. I, 474. Scot changes Landor’s colon after “nothing” to a semi-colon.
“Vittoria Colonna. Wishes are by-paths on the declivity to unhappiness…”: From the imaginary conversation, “Vittoria Colonna and Michel-Angelo Buonarotti,” Voll. II, 220.
“Cleone. There is a gloom in deep love, as in deep water…”: Cleone is discussing Sappho with Aspasia in this quotation from Pericles and Aspasia, Vol. II, 373.
“Aesop. Laodameia died; Helen died; Leda, the beloved of Jupiter, went before”: In this speech, Aesop, the famed fabulist, addresses Rhodope in the first of two imaginary conversations between them (Vol. II, 93-8), 97.
poem about Rose Aylmer, “Ah what avails the sceptred race, / Ah what the form divine!”: This poem appears, as quoted by Scott, on page 636 of the Works, under the numeral CII. Rose Aylmer lent Landor a book by Clara Reeve containing the Arabian tale that inspired Landor’s Gebir (see Colvin 24-5). The poem was composed after Aylmer’s premature death in India.
Poem to Miss Swift (under the name “Ianthe”), “Years After”: The Miss Swift in question is Landor’s youthful love, Sophia Jane Swift, later the Countess de Molandé (see Colvin 22). The entire poem, as punctuated in the Works, where it has no title but the numeral CLXXXIV, is as follows:
“Do you remember me? Or are you proud?”
Lightly advancing thro’ her star-trimm’d crowd,
Ianthe said, and lookt into my eyes.
“A yes, a yes, to both: for Memory
Where you but once have been must ever be,
And at your voice Pride from his throne must rise.”
(Vol. II, 650)
George Moore (1852-1933) “the witty Irishman” who claimed that Landor created “more souls than Shakespeare” was an Irish-born English author, known for his novels Esther Waters (1894) and A Mummer’s Wife (1885). A letter from Landor’s mother, according to Forster, revealed that Moore thought highly of Landor’s play Count Julian (293).
“in Hall”: The hall to which Scott refers is that of Trinity College, Oxford. The source of Scott’s information is Forster’s biography, 28-9, but it was not Landor but his friend, the poet Robert Southey Hall with unpowdered locks.
De Quincey: Thomas De Quincey (1785-1859), the English essayist best known as the author of Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).
Meredith: George Meredith. See Scott’s essay, “George Meredith, the Dean of English Novelists.”
The Red Indian
This article originally appeared in The Times, London, Tuesday, May 25, 1920 bearing two subtitles, “His Status in Canada” and “Progress Towards Full Citizenship,” as well as two sectional titles, “Trapping and Fishing” and “British Columbia Indians.” As these titles were devised by The Times, and not by Scott, they have been removed from the present edition.
gramophone: An instrument which plays recorded music by means of a needle which rests in the groove of a rotating disk, or record.
gorgets: Historically, armour worn at the throat.
Sir Francis Bond Heard is the man to whom Scott obliquely refers as “one Governor of Upper Canada,” who, “seeing them [Indians] so wretched, resolved to send them back to Nature for healing.” See Scott’s essay, “Indian Affairs, 1840-1867,” where Scott quotes at length Bond Head’s impassioned response to Lord Glenelg’s 14 January 1836 dispatch concerning the state of Indian affairs.
the Great War: World War I. See Scott’s “The Canadian Indians and the Great World War” for a more detailed look at his perceptions of Native Canadians’ involvement in World War I.
enfranchisement: The right to vote. Under Bill C-10 (additions to the Indian Act, 1880, sections 99-107), the enfranchisement of Native peoples was also synonymous with loss of treaty status. Men who voluntarily agreed to the loss of their legal Indian identity could be granted their reserve lands in fee simple and individual enfranchisement after a probationary period of “satisfactory conduct.” Only doctors, lawyers, ministers, priests, those whom the [page 593] local Indian agent deemed “civilized, moral and sober,” (and later, returned World War I veterans) were eligible. However, Native women who married non-Natives lost both their Indian status and their reserve lands when they were involuntarily enfranchised through marriage. Native women and to the persons who involuntarily lost treaty status did not receive redress until 1985, when Bill C-31 invited such persons to apply for status for themselves and their children. Native people did not obtain universal suffrage in Canada until 1960.
“one Ontario group of Indians…”: Scott’s essay “Indian Affairs, 1867-1912,” refers to “the Wyandottes of Anderdn, a band of Huron stock,” enfranchised in 1881. Scott comments: “By education and intermarriage they had become civilized….They were self-supporting, and the experiment of enfranchising the whole band was not in any way hazardous.”
This unpublished travel piece has only one bit of internal evidence as to its date, the reference to “you paltry twenthieth century fellow” in the last paragraph. Scott and his wife spent the months of August and September, 1925, in France. To W.A. Deacon he gave his address while abroad as The Canadian Consulate, Paris. A likelier source of the piece on Dieppe is his trip abroad in 1921. He wrote to Clarence Gagnon on 8 June, 1921 that “The plan is to have a turn around in Belgium and Northern France, and go to Paris, and then have a little while in London.” “We have not been in Paris since 1907,” he adds, referring obliquely to the trip during which his daughter Elizabeth died. There is no way of knowing how closely the travelling and the writing coincided, of course, so the placement of this piece must remain tentative.
cocher: A coachman or driver.
pour boire: for drinking, in this case, a tip to buy the driver a drink.
fiacer: A cab.
fille de chambre: A maid.
sabots : Wooden shoes or clogs.
les petits chevaux: The little horses.
croupier: The operator of a gaming table. [page 594]
Fait votre jeu: Place your bets, make your play.
“On ne prent plus. C’est fini!”: Scott’s verb here is suspect. The croupiere likely said, “On ne prend plus. C’est fini!” or, “one is taking no more [bets]. It [betting] is done!”
bonhomme: A good, simple man.
Moyen age: The Middle Ages.
Sterne: Laurence Sterne (1713-1768), was an Irish-born writer, clergyman, and author of the novel, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (1760) and other works. Scott’s remark that the traveller may imagine himself on “an unsentimental journey” suggests his familiarity with Sterne’s Rabelais-influenced travelogue, A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, by Mr. Yorick (1768).
Villon: Francçois Villon (1431-c. 1465), French poet. A student at the Sorbonne who was exiled from Paris for his role in a theft from the College of Navarre and later imprisoned at Meung-sur-Loire, Villon is remembered for his poetic collections Les Lais (1456) and Le Testament (1461). His poems employ eight-syllable lines, organized into eight-line stanzas, and examine subjects such as poverty, death, flight, and “la très amoureuse prison” [the prison of great love].
Rabelais: François Rabelais (c. 1494-1553), French writer, Franciscan priest, and doctor. His Pantagruel (1532), and La vie trés horrificque du grand Gargantua (1534), ostensibly deal in broad comic terms with the adventures of licentious giants, but they also enact sharp socio-political satire. Although both volumes (published under the name Alcofribas Nasier, an anagram of François Rabelais) were place on the Sorbonne’s list of books to be censured, they remained extremely popular, and Rabelais later benefited from the patronage of King Francis I. His work was influential with such eighteenth-century satirists as Laurence Sterne and Jonathan Swift.
Boucher: Scott’s reference to a box, “carved with an intricate design, the lid painted with a copy of a Boucher figure piece, “suggests that the lid was a copy of the work of François Boucher (1703-1770), a French painter. Boucher was a member of the Academie Français in the category peintre d’histoire [painter of historical cavases], and his work ranges from the Biblical (Le sacrifice de Gédéon) and mythological to the erotic (Hercule et Omphale) and pastoral (Berger et Bergère). Alternatively, the box could be a copy of the work of Antoine-Claude Boucher, a designer of furniture and embroidery of the same period. [page 595]
Saint-Saëns: Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921), was a French composer and pianist. His most famous work, Le Carnaval des animaux, features programmatic tone-painting expressive of the characters of various animals. (for example, the famous, gliding lines of the cello solo in Le cygnet [the Swan]). Saint-Saëns also composed numerous pieces for orchestra, keyboard, and chamber groups.
Poetry and Progress
This is Scott’s presidential address, delivered before the Royal Society of Canada, May 17, 1922. Royal Society of Canada Proceedings and Transaction. 3rd Series, 16 (1922), slvii-lxvii. It has been previously reprinted: S.L. Dragland, ed. Duncan Campbell Scott: A Book of Criticism (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1974).
The Royal Society of Canada: A Society formed on May 25, 1883 by the Marquess of Lorne, governor general of Canada from 1878 to 1883. As defined in its Act of Incorporation, the Society was dedicated to encouraging “studies and investigations in literature and science,” publishing” original papers and memoirs of merit,” offering prizes to aid research “on subjects relating to Canada,” and to collecting specimens “with a view to the formation of a Canadian Museum.”
National Archives: The Public Archives of Canada, located at 395 Wellington St., Ottawa, Ontario, was formed in 1872, and contains various federal and private documents, maps, recordings, films, and other artifacts pertaining to Canadian history. Scott reminds the Royal Society members that their charter established the need to form “a National Museum of Ethnology, Archaelogy, and Natural History,” and he mentions the Museum of Man (later the Museum of Civilization)was established in 1910.
Walter Pater (1839-1894) was an English critic of art, history, and literature. Pater was an advocate of “cultivated hedonism.” “Music and prose literature are, in one sense, the opposite terms of art; the art of literature presenting to the imagination, through the intelligence, a range of interests, as free and various as those which music presents to it through sense….If music be the ideal of all art what [page 596]ever, precisely because in music it is impossible to distinguish the form from the substance or matter, the subject from the expression, then, literature, by finding its specific excellence in the absolute sorrespondence of the term to its import, will be but fulfilling the condition of all artistic quality in things everywhere, of all good art” (“Style,” 37-8). See Appreciations: With an Essay on Style. The Works fo Wlater Pater in Eight Volumes. Vol. V (London: Macmillan, 1901).
(Wilhelm) Richard Wagner (1813-1883): The German Romantic composer largely known for his rich orchestration and his operatic cycle, Der Ring des Nibelungen. Wagner linked the four operas of the Ring cycle using characteristic melodies or leitmotifs, to signal the presence of certain characters or themes.
Sir Philip Sydney: Sydney speaks of the position of a Roman poet, who was called vates, or “prophet,” and represents the Psalms of David as the origin of this close association between poetry and prophecy. The full quotation, taken from Sydney’s The Defense of Poesie (1595), reads: “But euen the name of Psalms wil speak for me, which being interpreted, is nothing but Songs: then that it is fully written in meter as all learned Hebritians agree, although the rules be not yet fully found. Lastly and princiapally, his handling his prophecie, which is merely Poeticall. For what else is the awaking his musical Unstruments, the often and fre changing of person, his notable Prosopopeias, when he maketh you as it were see God commin gin his maiestie, his telling of the beasts ioyfulnesse, and hils leaping, but a heauenly poesie, wherin almost he sheweth himself a passionate louer of that unspeakable and euerlasting bewtie, to be seene by the eyes of the mind, onely cleared by faith?” (London: William Ponsonby, 1595. Ian Lancashire, ed. Representative Criticism On-line, 1996).
Marjorie L.C. Pickthall was a Canadian poet (1883-1922). Scott quotes Pickthall’s peome, “The Little Fauns to Proserpine,” found on pages 47-9 in her collection The Lamp of Poor Souls and Other Poems (London: Bodley Head, 1916).
“Song of Songs”: A reference to the biblical book, The Song of Solomon, 1:1, which reads “The song of songs, which is Solomon’s.”
“I am dying, Egypt…”: Shakepeare’s Anthony and Cleopatra, Act IV, scene v.
“Judgements are mere fathers of their garments, whose constancies expire before their fashions”: Shakespeare’s All’s Well That Ends well, Act I, scene ii. [page 597]
“the prophetic soul dreaming on things to come”: Shakepeare’s Sonnet 107, lines 1-2.
“Daffodils, that come before the seallow dares, and take the winds of March with beauty”: Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale, Act IV, scene iv.
“there are many mansions in the house of poetry”: Scott puns on the well-known biblical phrase, “In my gather’s house are many mansions” (John 14:2).
Elizabeth I: See notes on Scott’s review of John Stuart Thomson’s A Day’s Song.
Marlowe: Shakespeare’s contemporary, the English poet and playwright Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), wrote such plays as Dr. Faustus (c. 1588) and Tamburlaine the Great (c. 1587).
John Webster: Elizabethan dramatist (c. 1580-1634), Webster is the author of such violent tragedies as The Duchess of Malfi (c. 1614).
Sir Thomas Browne: See Scott’s “Literature and Life: A Book lover’s Corner [IV. George Borrow / Sir Thomas Brownel].”
Mattew Arnold’s words,” … in the Greece of Pindar and Sophocles, in the England of Shakespeare, the poet lived in a current of ideas in the highest degree animating and nourishing to the creative power; society was, in the fullest measure, permeated by fresh thought, intelligent and alive’ are borrowed from Arnold’s essay, “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time.” See Lectures and Essays in Criticism. R.H. Super, ed. (Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1962), 262-3.
William Dean Howells edited Harper’s magazine from 1886-1891. See the notes on Scott’s “a Decade of Canadian Poetry” for further information.
“moderation is the highest law of poetry”: Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s pronouncement on poetic aesthetics may be found in The Collected Works of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (London: Ellis and Scrutton, 1886), 11.
Tennyson: see notes to Scott’s address, “Archibald Lampman.”
Alexander Pope (1688-1744), reknowned English poet and satirist,, Pope’s poem, “The Dunciad” (1728-43) levels deadly wit at numerous contemporary writers and political figures; in other works, such as “an Essay on Man” (1734), Pope takes a gentler, more philosophical approach to reconciling the problems of divinity and human nature. Pope is also noted for his translations of homer’s The Illiad and The Odyssey. [page 598]
Nausicaa: In Homer’s epic poem, TheOdyssey, Nausicaa is the daughter of Arete and Alkinoös and princess of the Phaiakians. In book VI of The Odyssey, she gives Odysseus clothing, food and drink.
“that profane poem on Heaven by one of the moderns”: Scott alludes to “On Heaven,” by English poet and novelist Ford Madox ford (1837-1939), in which the poem’s narrator is swept up by a beautiful woman in a “swift red car” and carried to a Heaven that is very much like Provence. See Alan Judd’s Ford Madox Ford (London: Collins, 1990), 218-31.
Thomas Gray (1716-1771), was English poet best known for his meditative verse, including “On a Distant Prospct of Eton College” (1743) and “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyear” (1751).
John Donne (1572-1631): An English metaphysical poet known for his complex religious and love sonnets, Donne also served as member of parliament and in the Anglican church.
Robert Herrick: See Scott’s “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner[III. English Writers in Italy / Robert Herrick].”
Rupert Brooke (1887-1915), was an English poet of the first Worlds War. It is uncertain where Scott picked up the idiosyncratic titles he proposes for Brooke’s poems, but given the subject matter, it is probable that “The Blue Room,” refers to Brooke’s 1908 poem “Blue Evening”; “Afternoon Tea,” to Brooke’s “Dining-Room Tea.” Scott’srefernce to the poem “Blow Out ye Bugles Iver the Rich Dead,” cites the first line (not the title) of the third of Brooke’s War Sonnets, “The Dead” (1914): “ Blow out, you bugles, over the rich Dead!”
Wilfred Owen (1893-1918): Scott quotes a portion of the title of this English war poet’s poem “Apologia Pro Poemate Meo” (1917).
“The Burial of Sir John Moore”: Scott refers a poem by Charles Wolfe (1791-1823), “The Burial of Sir John Moore at Corunna” (1817).
Sorely: Charles Hamilton Sorley (1895-1915), was a Scottish poet and author of poems including “The Song of the Ungirl Runners.”
Euripides: A Greek tragedist who lived from c. 480 to 406 B.C., Euripides is remembered for such extant plays as Electra (c.417) and Alcetis (438).
Walt Whitman, and the preface to Leaves of Grass: Scott quotes a portion of this sentence from the Brooklyn, NY 1855 edition of Whitmans’s book of poems: “The profit of rhyme is that it drops [page 599] seeds of a sweeter and more luxuriant rhyme, and of uniformity that it conveys itself into its own roots in the ground out of sight.”
“I Saw Eternity the Other Night”: Scott refers to this poem by its first line; the actual title is “The World.” Te poem was originally printed in Silex Scintillans (1650), a collection by the English metaphysical poet Henry Vaughan (1622-1695).
“Home-Thoughts, from Abroad”: A poem by Robert Browning, first published in Dramatic Romances and Lyrics (1845).
Sainte-Beuve: Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve (1804-1869). A French writer and critic much admired by Mattew Arnold, Sainte-Beuve wrote familiar essays for French newspapers such as the Revue de Paris and Revues des Deux Mondes every Monday for twenty years.
the “New Movement in Poetry” in the United States: Scott’s terminiolgy reflects the credo of the Imagists, as set out in Richard Aldington’s definitive article, “Modern Poetry and the Imagists,” The Egoist 1: 11 (1 June, 1914). The Imagists believed in the uses of few adjectives, direct treatment of the poetic subject, lack of sentiment, rhythmic individuality, and le mot juste. The quotations beginning, “a heroic effort to get rid of obstacles,” and “to make the modern manifestations of poetry less a matter of rules” may derive from participants in this poetic movement, including Ezra Pound, William Carlos Williams, and Amy Lowel, but they have not been identified.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge: see the first chapter of the second volume of Coleridge’s Biographia Literaria for the full context of his remarks on the place of passion and order in poetry. The remark to which Scott refers later in the essay, “I could write as good verses as ever I did if I were perfectly free from vexations and were in the adlibitum hearing the fine music, which has a sensible effect in harmonizing my thoughts, and in animating and, as it were, lubricating my inventive faculties,” was penned 1 July 1833 for Table Talk. See The Collected Works of Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Table Talk. Vol. I (Printceton: Princeton UP, 1990), 409.
John Keats (1795-1821): The Phrase, “magic casements, opening on the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” comes from stanza seven of Keats’” Ode to a Nightingale.” The quotation, “The excellence of every art is its intensity,” comes from a letter written by Keats to his brothers on 28 December 1817: “The excellence of [page 600] every art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate from their being in close relationship with Beauty and Truth.”
“The tigers of wrath are wiser than the horses of instruction”: Scott modernizes William Blake’s spelling of “tigers”; the quotation is from Plate Nine of The Marriage of Heaven and Hell.
The biographer of Charles James Fox to whom Scott alludes is Sir George Otto Trevelyan (1838-1928), who published many works on Fox during the period 1880-1914. Fox’s enthusiastic definition of poetry, “It is the great refreshment of the human mind…the greatest thing after all,” may be found on page 302 of Trevelyan The Early History of Charles James Fox (London: Longmans, 1881). On the same page, Trevlyan claims that contemporary poets “Consoled him [Fox] for having missed everything upon which his heart was set; for the loss of power and fortune; for his all but permanent exclusions from the privilege of serving his country and the opportunity of benefiting his friends; even for the extinction of that which Burke, speaking form a long and intimate knowledge of his disposition, most correctly called ‘his darling popularity,’” Scott omits the portion of this sentence beginning with the word “friends.”
Review of L. Adams Beck, The Ninth Vibration
This review appeared in Canadian Bookman 4 (December 1922): 323. Scott exchanged a series of letters with L. (Lily) Adams Beck between October and December of 1922. In the first (9 October) Beck responds to one of Scott’s (lost) in which he says that he has reviewed The Ninth Vibration. She praises The Magic house and In the Village of Viger. In the last (15 December), she says, without correcting Scott’s impression that she is he, “I am delighted with your review of The Ninth Vibration which you sent me yesterday.” In his Literary History of Canada chapter, “Fiction 1920-1940,” Desmond Pacey has this to say about the prolific Beck, who wrote historical romances under the pseudonym of E. Barrington and novels about Mediterranean subjects under the pseudonym of Louise Moresby: “It may seem absurd to give so much space to the forgotten author of amorous pot-boilers. Her career, however, might legitimately be claimed to be part of the literary history of Canada as an example of how readily the Canadian reading public could mistake grandiosity for greatness. Fro the astonishing fact is this: “E. Barrington” was [page 601] taken seriously by her contemporaries. Duncan Campbell Scott, then President of the Royal Society of Canada, reviewed her 1922 collection of Oriental tales, The Ninth Vibration, and praised it highly” (661).
The Aboriginal Races
Scott’s essay was published in Social and Economic Conditions of the Dominion of Canada. W.P.M. Kennedy, ed. (Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 1923).
“pied de terre”: Scott means “pied-à-terre,” temporary lodging.
Archibald Lampman 
This essay has been transcribed from a manuscript of 22 typed pages found in the Duncan Campbell Scott Papers of the Lorne Pierce Collection, Queen’s University Archives, by Dr. Tracy Ware. It is dated 1924 in a finding aid. In the essay, Scott writes, “I have quoted freely in my introduction to Lyrics of Earth from Lampman’s letters to Thomson.” This internal evidence suggests that this piece followed the writing of the Lyrics of Earth Introduction, but (provided that the finding aid date is accurate) preceded its publication. Another reference to a portrait of Lampman (“the portrait here given has not been published before. He usually had a mustache which hid a rather stubborn upper lip”) suggests that the piece was intended for publication, although a published copy has not been located. In many ways, this is the most interesting and most personal of Scott’s essays on Lampman. Although Scott makes use of genealogical analysis in this essay, he does so in a much more abbreviated fashion than in his introduction to Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth, Sonnets and Ballads (1925), in which he borrows heavily from Rev. Ernest Voorhis’ essay, “The Ancestry of Archibald Lampman, Poet” (1921). Instead, Scott draws on his personal relationship with the poet’s mother for biographical insights, and assigns particular importance to Mrs. Lampman’s role in providing her son with an education and a civil service position. Scott also gives a closer identification of the dwellings inhabited by the Lampman family, but [page 602] unfortunately, he does not follow up on the tantalizing promise that “I might even now localize and identify the references, the point of view, the itinerary” behind certain of Lampman’s poems.
United Empire Loyalists: American colonists who supported the royalist-British cause during the American Revolution (1775-83). The title “U.E.” was given to those persons who fled to Canada during the revolution by Guy Carleton, Lord Dorchester, in recognition of their loyalty to Britain.
the revolutionary war: The American Revolution on War of Independence.
Myles Standish: see the notes to “Introduction, Archibald Lampman, Lyrics of Earth, Sonnets and Ballads.”
“LaGrippe”: Influenza. See “Introduction, Archibald Lampman, Lyrics s of Earth, Sonnets and Ballads,” where Scott quotes Lampman’s letter of 3 February 1895, in which Lampman complains that he as been “furnishing a winter carnival” for grippe germs. Scott’s capitalization and contraction ofthoe two words suggests a similarly humourous personification of Lampman’s annual affliction.
“Mother, to whose valiant will….”: See the dedication to Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth (Boston: Copeland and Day, 1895), 4. Scott omits a comma at the end of the first line, and contracts Lampman’s compound “a-field” into afield.”
Bishop Bethune: Alexander Neil Bethune (1800-1879), an Anglican cleric who found the Diocesan Theological Institution in Cobourg in 1842; this school later merged with Trinity College in Toronto. Bethune’s career in the church culminated when he succeeded John Strachan as the second bishop of Toronto in 1867.
Prefect: A senior pupil in a school, charged with enforcingng discipline amongst his peers and juniors, and often accorded special privileges for so doing.
meerschaum pipe: A pipe furnished with a white, clay-like bowl.
Sir Alexander Campbell (1822-1892) was a lawyer who articled with Sir John A. Macdonald, and not surprisingly, later developed into a politician. Campbell served on the Legislative Council, and after taking part in the Confederation negotiations, was appointed to the Senate. He also pursued numerous business interests during his years in public office. Campbell’s most notorious government position was as minister of justice in 1885 at the time of Louis Riel’s arrest [page 603]
Dr. William Dawson LeSueur (1840-1917), a lawyer turned civil servant and essayist. LeSueur occupied the postion of secretary of the Post Office Department from 1888 to 1902, and was elected to the Royal Society in 1903.
“Here my drudgery is apart from my literary faculty…”: Scott identifies the year incorrectly as 1892. Lampman’s letter of 8 March 1893 reads: “Here the drudgery I do—and it is I must confess not very heavy—is a thing apart from my literary faculty and does not directly injure it. While I am at my desk the literary side of me is simply in abeyance. In the Youth’s Companion Office my literary powers would be brought into actual employment upon a petty and colourless kind of work in which I could have no real interest and performance of which would require of me a distinct abnegation of all that is original in my bent of mind.” See An annotated Edition of the correspondence between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980), 67.
tentative offer from Cornell in 1893: Lampman refers to this offer in his letter to Thomson of 5 July 1893. “I had a letter from Professor Tyler In which he inquired whether I would like a position in the Cornell University Library. I judge, however, from his tone that the position would not amount to much” (Lynn 88).
“a little cottage in some sunny mountainous land…”: Lampman’s letter to Thomson of 29 March 1898 states “I wish I had a little cottage in some sunny mountainous land with nothing to do but to cultivate a small garden and make a few poems now and then” (Lynn 200-1).
Pope’s line, “to lisp in numbers for the numbers came”: Scott quotes lines 125-8 of Alexander Pope’s “An Epistle from Mr. Pope, to Dr. Arbuthnot” (1735), in which the poet asks:
Why did I write? what sin to me unknown
Dipt me in Ink, my Parents’, or my own?
As yet a Child, nor yet a Fool to Fame,
I lisp’d in Numbers, for the Numbers came.
Eighteenth-Century English Literature. Geoffrey Tillotson et al. eds. (London: Harcourt Brace Johanovich, 1969), 663.
Dedication to Alcyone “To the memory of my father, himself a poet, who first instructed me in the Art of verse”: Only a dozen copies of Alcyone were printed. See the notes to Scott’s Memoir, The Poems of Archibald Lampman.” [page 604]
Lampman’s problems with publisher: See the notes to “Foreeword, Archibald Lampman, At the Long Sault and Other New Poems” for references to Lampman’s complaints about the publishing house of Copeland and Day.
William Dean Howells’ review of Among the Millet: See the notes to “A Decade of Canadian Poetry” for publication information pertaining to this review.
“you have a way of comforting me with letters…”: Scott paraphrases liberally here. Lampman writes to Thomson on 5 March 1894: “You have a way of writing letters which are a great comfort and relief to one—tom me at any rate. When I get into one of the dark stretches and am sitting long in sack cloth and ashes, I feel a strong desire upon me to fish a letter out of you” (Lynn 107).
John Butler Yeat’s words, the poet “must have tears and laughter and romance and vision and relaxation and ease…”: See Yeat’s Early memories; some chapters of autobiography (Churchtown: Cuala Press, 1923; reprinted in Shannon: Irish University P, 1971), 92. Yeats writes: “He [the poet] must have tears and laughter & romance and vision and relaxation and ease, otherwise his soul for poetry and beauty withers and dies away.”
“I am bound. I am suffocated. If I had the genius of Milton I could do nothing”: Lampman’s letter of 29 August 1895 reads: “… I propose to get myself superannuated. If they will do that (and I think they woe it to me) and give me all the advantage that the law allows, I can retire on a pension of $600 or $700. I shall go to some quiet country place and give myself up to poetry…it is freedom that I want. I am bound. I am suffocated. If I had the genius of Milton I could do nothing.” (Lynn 150).
“I take a run…”: In this extract from Lampman’s letter of 26 October 1894 (Lynn 127), Scott substitutes the word “home” for Lampman’s word “back.”
“I am somewhat bodily sore…”: In Lampman’s 26 jJuly 1897 letter (Lynn 188), Scott substitutes the words “bicycle” and “hauling” for Lampman’s playfully archaic “byke” and “hawling.” Lampman’s letter begins a new sentence with the word “After”; Scott splices the two sentences together with a semicolon.
“the sonnet beginning. ‘The frost that stings…’”: Scott refers to Lampman’s sonnet “Winter Uplands.”
Portrait: the mustache-less portrait of Lampman to which Scott makes reference may well be the one which fronts Lyrics of Earth, [page 605]
Sonnets and Ballads (Toronto: Musson, 1925). It has vanished from the pages of the typescript.
“tedious as a tired horse, a railing wife, worse than a smoky house”: Shakespeare’s King Henry IV, Part I, Act 3, scene i. Hotspur declaims:
O, he is as tedious
As a tired horse, a railing wife;
Worse than a smoky house: I had rather live
With cheese and garlic in a windmill, far,
Than feed on cates and have him talk tome
In any summer-house in Christendom.
Rossetti’s words, “Each Shall for the other have in silence speech, and in a word complete community”: This statement is taken from the octave of Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s “The Birth Bond,” one of “The House of Life” sonnets that were first published in his Poems (1870):
Have you not noted, in some family
Where two were born of a first marriage-bed
How still they won their gracious bond, though fed
And nursed on the forgotten breast and knee?—
How to their father’s children they shall be
In act and thought of one goodwill; but each
Shall for the other have, in silence speech,
And in a word complete community?
Isaac Walton: See the notes to “Memoir, The Poems of Archibald Lampman” for a discussion of the aptness of this quotation.
Mathew Arnold’s reference to Arthur Hugh Clough: See the notes to “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [III. English Writers in Italy / Robert Herrick]” for this reference.
Introduction, Archibald Lampman, Lyrics of Earth, Sonnets and Ballads
Scott’s introduction explains the provenance of this book, published in Toronto by Musson in 1925. What needs to be added is that the retrospective thanks paid to George Iles for underwriting the Memorial Edition may be owing to E. W. Thomson, who wrote Scott [page 606] on 4 April, 1923 that he had recently re-read Lampman’s poems in the1900 edition, and goes on: “By the way—don’t you agree that George Iles should have credit, in your forthcoming selection book from Archie, for having given the money to pay for the 1900 AD book?”
Scott says that he is “indebted to the diligence of Dr. Voorhis for the information here given as to the ancestry of the poet,” and refers to a biographical essay, “The Ancestry or Archibald Lampman, Poet,” by Lampman’s brother-in-law, Rev. Ernest Voorhis, presented by Scott at the May 1921 Meeting of the Royal Socety of Canda and published in the Royal society of Canada Proceedings and Transactions (1921), 103-2. Scott does not mention his having borrowed verbatim from Voorhis. His only contribution to that part of his “own” essay was to omit passages from Voorhis’ longer piece. Since Scott opens his “Memoir” for The Poems of Archibald Lampman (1900) with a summary of the ancestral information, it is possible that Voorhis is somewhere behind that writing as well.
At the Mermaid Inn: Barry Davies’ At the Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe 1892-93 (Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1979) gives an abstract of the column: “A Saturday column that ran in the Toronto Globe from 6 February 1892 until 1 July 1893, it covered a wide range of material—original poetry and prose, book and music reviews, articles on philosophy, politics, poetics, religion, and writings on a myriad of other matters.” Scott’s quotations from the column (with page references to Davie’s edition )follow.
“It is a noticeable fact…”: At the Mermaid Inn 2 July 1892; Davies 106.
“of the many inspiring…”: At the Mermaid Inn 9 April 1892; Davies 47.
“I admit…”: At the Mermaid Inn 12 March 1892; Davies 31.
“ April and May”: At the Mermaid Inn 14 May 1892; Davies 97.
“It is not the brilliancy…”: At the Mermaid Inn 25 June 1892; Davies 97.
“we are apt…”: At the Mermaid Inn 25 June 1892, Davies 97-8. The last sentence is a separate paragraph in the original.
“Those who do accomplish…”: At the Mermaid Inn 27 August 1892; Davies 140.
“someone has said…”: At the Mermaid Inn 8 April 1893; Davies 290. [page 607]
“But , patience…”: At the Mermaid Inn 8 April 1893; Davies 291.
Edward William Thomson, the first to write of Lampman’s book: My one cavil,” Thomson wrote on 28 September, 1922 about Scott’s Presidential Address to the Royal Society of Canada,” is that I don’t think Howells had praised Archie before I wrote the Editorial in the Globe hailing his poetry as of great worth and beauty. How it amazed me delightedly at the time.” The dates of Lampman’s letters to Thomson mentioned by Scott are given below, with page reference to Helen Lynn’s An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence Between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) (Ottawa: Tecumseh P, 1980).
“I feel a rekindling of life…”: 20 May 1892; Lynn 40.
“I make allowances…”: 5 July 1893; Lynn 87.
“Poetry has sized and enveloped the whole filed… I don’t not care a hang for anything but poetry”: 22 November 1893; Lynn 102. Scott cleans up Lampman’s original phrase, which is “to speak vernacularly I do not give a damn for anything in the world but poetry.”
“There is one kind of work I can do—nature work…”: 22 November 1893; Lynn 101.
“To have written a good stanza is the finest sensation on earth”: 31 July 1893; Lynn 91.
“I intend to stay here in the Civil Service…”: 29 August 1895; Lynn 150.
“I am getting weary…”: 25 June 1895; Lynn 146.
“I have taken to reading Greek…”: 6 June 1894; Lynn 121.
“I find myself for the first time in my life approaching a condition of philosophy”: 11 February, 1896; Lynn 163-4.
“By the doctor’s directions I am drinking whiskey…”: 3 February 1895; Lynn 131.
“I have gone through so much…”: 30 September 1895; Lynn 152.
“To tell the truth I have been under such a heavy strain of feeling…”: 30 August 1896; Lynn 176.
“I have been furnishing a winter carnival…”: 3 February 1895; Lynn 131.
“The Keats at the beginning of the poem was very natural …”: 25 April 1894; Lynn 119. The poem to which Lampman refers is “Lisa,” written c. 1885 and reworked in 1891-2, but never published. It may be found in Vol. 2, File 5 of the Lampman papers at P.A. AC., according to Lynn.[page 608]
“I became more sensitive…”: 28 February 1894; Lynn 105-6.
“It was almost ten years ago…”: Scott quotes a lecture by Lampman on poets Charles G.D. Roberts and George Frederick Cameron. See “Two Canadian poets: a Lecture,” in D.M.R. Bentley’s edition of the Essays and Reviews of Archibald Lampman (London: Canadian Poetry Press, 1996), 94.
“Only in the use of the Indian weed…”: In the fashion of Johnson or of Addison and Steele, Charles Lamb (1775-1834) wrote numerous” to “The Praise of Chimney Sweepers”—for the London Magazine in the 1820s. The essays were ostensibly written by a pensive, moderate critic named Elia, and later collected and edited by a friend. Scott quotes from Charles Lambs Preface to The Essays of Elia, in which the “editor’ of the papers eulogizes Elia: “He was temperate in his meals and diversions, but always kept a little on this side of abstemiousness. Only in the use of the Indian weed he might be thought a little excessive. He took it, he would say, as a solvent of speech” (xiv).
“Reality”: Scott seems to be continuing his quotation from At The Mermaid Inn. “Reality” appears on 4 June 1892 (Davies 88) in the context of an imaginary dialogue between two sonneteers, one of which, according to the other, has “violated every law of moral dignity and literary decency” with “Reality.”
Poems by Lampman quoted by Scott: The following line identification list pagination from Lyrics of Earth: sonnets and Ballads with corrections to Scott’s quotations, where appropriate:
“The city of the End of Things” (261-3): The phrase, “obey a hideous routine” occurs in line 32; “for the grim Idiot at the gate / Is deathless and eternal there” are the last two line sof the hpoem.
“The grasshoppers spin into mine ear, / A small innumerable sound”: Lampman’s poem “Heat,” lines 35-6, 77-8.
“Thou dream’st and art strangely happy, / But thou canst not answer why”: The last two lines of “The Sweetness of life,” 270.
“O Life!”: An exclamation taken from the poem “Life and Nature,” 195-6. The concluding lines read: “O Life! I kept saying, / and the very word seemed sweet.”
“something radiant and august as night, / something as wide as space”: These lines are taken from the poem “Alcyone,” lines 40-1, 217-8. [page 609]
“That holds by magic in its twisted face, / The heart of all the perfumes of the wood”: The last two lines of Lampman’s sonnet “After the Shower, “ 125.
“But Time, and all the pine-groves of the world”: “In the Pine Groves II, line 7, 121.
“The wind—the rhapsodist—goes by”: “Winter Uplands,” line 15, 162-3. The line, “until we dream ourselves immortal and are still” is also taken from this poem; it is the last line of the poem, and thelast line that Lampman wrote before his death.
“Entering again into the eternal mood, In which the world was made”: The last two lines of Lampman’s poem “Favourites of Pan”: “Entering again into the eternal mood / Wherein the world was made,” 194.
“The animal man in his warmth and vigour, sound, and hard, and complete”: “The Woodcutter’s Hut,” line 40, 248-51.
“unfurl a nobler influence”: “In the Pine Groves II,” line 5: “But here a nobler influence is unfurled,” 121.
“Thoughts bedded there, empearled / Before the birth and making of the world”: This is the last line and a half of Lampman’s sonnet “Voices of Earth,” 121.
Other poems mentioned by Scott in the course of the article include: “Personality,” 264; “the Clearer Self, “ 229; “the Largest Life,” series of three sonnets, 167-8; “Among the Timothy,” 58-61; “among the Millet,” 171; “Thamyris,” 136; “a Dawn on the Lievre,” 129 [note that no accent is used in this edition on “Lièvre”]; “The Frogs,” 113-4; “the Death of Tennyson,” 138.
“The Land of Pallas”: A poem not included in Lyrics of Earth. “The Land of Pallas” appears on pages 201-10 of The Poems of Archibald Lampman, and is also mentioned in Scott’s “Memoir” in that volume.
Augustan: Scott’s estimation of the Augustan Age of English poetry reaches from John Dryden to George Crabbe, or from approximately 1631 [Dryden’s birth]-1832 [Crabbe’s death].
Parnassians: Parnassus is a Greek mountain consecrated to the Muses. Scott uses this epithet in its most general sense to refer to poets of lasting fame.
Puvis de Chavannes: Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-1898) was a French mural painter, whose work may be found in the Sorbonne and the Paris Panthéon. [page 610]
“Pour not forth words where there is a musician”: See Scott’s “Introduction, Walter J. Phillips, Ten Canadian Coulour Prints.”
“How tremulous-dazzlingly”: Scott quotes from Keats’ poem Endymion (1818), Book II, lies 190-1: “How tremulous-dazzlingly the wheels sweep / Around their axle!...”
“This is an art/ Which does mend nature”: Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale, Act IV, scene iv.
Sir Henry Clinton’s northern expedition: Clinton (1738-1795) was a British officer during the American Revolution. He captured Fort Montgomery from American rebels, and burned Kingston, the former capital of New York State, before turning towards New York itself.
Myles Standish (1584-1656): An early American colonist, Standish sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 and later served as treasurer and agent to London for Plymoth Colony.
John Alden (1599-1687): A Puritan colonist who, like Standish, sailed on the Mayflower.
the new Welland Canal: This 43.5 km-long canal, which bypasses Niagara Falls and connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, opened in 1829.
Archibald Lampman’s children: Natalie, born in 1892, Archibald Otto, born in 1898; and another son who did not live.
le most juste: An expression coined by French novelist and author of Madame Bovary (1856) Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), which describes the need to write with conscientious precision. Le mot juste is the word perfectly, precisely suited to express the sentiment and character of the thought one is expressing.
“on the thread of imaginary personality”: Robert Browning, in the May 14, 1872 preface to his Selections from the Poetical Works of Robert Browning (NY: John W. Lovell, 1872)writes: “In the present selection from my poetry, there is an attempt to escape from the embarrassment of appearing to pronounce upon what myself may consider the best of it. I adopt another principle; and by simply stringing together certain pieces on the thread of an imaginary personality, I present them in succession, rather as the natural development of a particular experience than because I account them the most noteworthy portion of my work.”
Erewhon: A satire by English novelist Samuel Butler (1835-1902) featuring intelligent machines. [page 611]
R.U.R.: A play by Czech playwright Karel Capek (1890-1938) that was produced in New York in 1922. R.U.R. stands fro Rossum’s Universal Robots.
Amiel said “a landscape is a state of the soul”: Scott refers to Henri-Frédéric Amiel (1821-1881), a Swiss professor of aesthetics and a writer. Lampman seems to have borrowed a copy of Amiel’s Journal Intime from E.W. Thomson (see letter of19 September 1890; Lynn 3-4).
Lampman’s socialist friends: This group probably includes such contemporary figures of Canadian and American socialist movement as Archibald C. Campbett, James Macoun, and Hamlin Garland. See Lampman’s essay, [Socialism], in D.M.R. Bentley’s The Essays and Reviews of Archibald Lampman (London: Canadian Poetry P, 1996), 186-90, and Bentley’s editorial notes, 351-4, in this volume for further elaboration on Lampman’s involvement with socialism.
Coleridge said “In poetry it is the blending of passion with order that constitutes perfection”: See Scott’s address, “Poetry and Progress.”
The Black Riders: Poetic collection by Stephen Crane. Lampman’s parody is an apt one. See Scott’s “Canadian Feeling Toward the United States” for a quotation from Crane’s volume and its date of publication. Lampman states that he does not like Crane on 11 March 1896: “I have not ready many of Crane’s things but judging from what I have seen I do not like him at all. Is he simply a very degenerate development of the spasmodic school? It seems to me that it would be easy to write that sort of stuff if one could make up one’s mind to. The capitals too strike me as an affectation. However this is a cursory opinion & very possibly I am wrong” (Lynn 168-9).
Charles G.D. Roberts: See Scott’s essay, “a Decade of Canadian Poetry.”
Arthur Hugh Clough (1819-1861): An English poet, and like Lampman and Scott, a civil servant. Clough is the subject of Mattew Arnold’s poem. “Thyrsis,” a pastoral elegy. Clough’s poem, “Ite domum saturate, venit Hesperus,” asks “Ah dear, and where is he, a year agone, / Who stepped beside and cheered us on and on?” (II. 6-7). The poem may be found on page 53 of The Poetical Works of Arthur Hugh Clough, ed. And memorial by francis Turner Palgrave (London: George Routledge and Sons, 1906).
The spectator 12 January 1889 notice of Among the Millet was a favourable one which ranked Lampman with Longfellow. The [page 612] Canadian poet Seranus (or S. Frances Riley Harrison, mentioned in Scott’s “a Decade of Canadian Poetry”), also reviewed Lampman’s Among the Millet in The Week (28 December 1888): 59.
as was said long ago of Theocritus “His Muse is the Muse of his native land”: Theocritus was a Greek poet who wrote poems in the pastoral mode around the period 270 BC.
Lieut. Bayard: Here, Scott is most likely referring to Lieut. Robert Bayar (1777-1868), who served in the British Army (the King’s Orange Rangers) at an early age, and who subsequently studied medicine and settled in Nova Scotia.
Who’s Who in Canadian Literature: Archibald Lampman
This brief piece was published in The Canadian Bookman 8:4 (April 1926): 107-9, with a brief bibliography by R.H.H. (R.H. Hathaway, Librarian, Acadian University). For some reason, Scott made the decision to cancel Alcyone in favour of the Memorial Edition.
Between 1890 and 1898, the Lampman and Scott families issued a joint Christmas card featuring a poem by each poet.
“to have written…”: See Scott’s Introduction to Lyrics of Earth.
Alfred de Musset: A French poet and playwright (1810-1857), Musset’s writing is forthright, amusing, and satirical by turns. His stylisitic credo, “C’est imiter quelqu’un que de planter des choux” [It is to imitates someone who plants cabbages], demonstrates his commitment to the crafting of dialogue through artisan-like imitation of real conversation.
Review of Herbert L. Steward, Anatole France, The Parisian
This review was published in The Dalhousie Review 7:4 (1927-8): 545-7. It may have been part of some literary maneuvering in which Scott worked on Stewart, editor of The Dalhousie Review, to find the right reviewer for his 1926 Poems. Herbert’s choice was Pelham Edgar; Scott thought it (23 November, 1926) “rather hard on Edgar to ask him to review the book as he has done so much for my work.” On 2 December, he asked Stewart himself to review. Responding to another review request, from his friend George Herbert Clarke (see [page 613] the review of Clarke’s The Hasting Day) Scott wrote: “The suggestion that U shd. Review the new book is flattering and I shd. Like to try it—I do not write a good review and I do it only on condition that you are satisfied with it. I find it difficult to write a review. I don’t think H.L.S. liked my review of his book on Anatole France in The Dalhousie and I run some risk of displeasing you. But if I can do it in an unusual way or form I might get by. I am sure to find many poems I will admire.” (20 February, 1930). Scott’s labour was lost: Poems was never reviewed in The Dalhousie Review.
Herbert L. Stewart: Herbert Leslie Stewart (1882-1953), a classical scholar, received his education at Oxford and at Royal University of Ireland. He began a long career as the George Munro Professor of Philosophy at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1913, and gave guest lectures at the University of Belfast and at Stanford. His scholarly interests centered on Anatole France and Friedrich Nietzche, and their influences on modern philosophy. Stewart also served as a radio commentator for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), and wrote book reviews. He was elected the President of Section II of the Royal Society of Canada— the Society in which Scott played such an important role— in 1936.
Anatole France: Anatole-François Thibault France (1844-1924) was a witty French writer of diverse and often contradictory political opinions. During his prolific career, France was viewed as variously supportive of socialism and monarchy; chastity and pornography; Catholicism and atheism. France’s polished, acerbic style and fluid opinion were largely approved by his contemporaries; to succeeding writers and critics such as Paul Valéry, these traits marked him as a literary diettanted. During the 1880s and early 1890s, France wrote for La Globe, Les Lettres et les arts, and L’echo de Paris. His better-known novels include Thaïs and La Rôtisserie de la Reinge Pédauque (1893) and Le Lys Rouge (1894). Herbert L. Stewart considers these last two works somewhat risqué. After inveighing against the pornography available to tourists in Parisian “picture shops,” Stewart exclaims, “Le Lys Rouge closely resembles the familiar tale tobe bought at a kiosk on the boulevards,” 244-5.
Académie Français: (See “Heinrich Heine”). According to Stewart, France was “extremely anxious to win his way into the Academie francaise, not because he had any real respect for that Association [page 614] on its merits, but because its membership was a great passport to public deference, “ 331. France was elected to the Académie in 1896.
“the eulogy delivered by M. Paul Valéry”: A reference to Paul Valéry (1871-1945). Scott’s decision to begin his review of Herbert’s biography of France with two quotations from Valéry’s “eulogy” of France is puzzling for many reasons. First, Valéry’s eulogy does not appear in Herbert’s book. Second, as Scott briefly hints, Valéry’s Reception Address to the French Academy is indeed arranged “with infinite care.” Valéry’s speech is no approbatory eulogy, but a prolonged and subtle insult to both Anatole France and to the conservative members of the Académie Française. After speaking ingenuously of France’s “limpid,” superficial style (the first excerpt which Scott quotes) to the member of the Académie, Valéry terms him “your colleagues.” More boldly, Valéry does not refer to Frnace by name even once during the entire “eulogy”: he describes France as “my future predecessor,” and repeats salacious gossip about France under the guise of dispelling rumours. While Stewart, like Valéry, notes France’s “pliant mind,” Stewart’s study historicizes France’s political and spiritual vacillations rather than merely denigrating them.
“question of sex” and “There is no real treatment of such questions…”: Note that there is a misprint in the original printing of Scott’s review, which appeared in The Dalhousie Review. The question, “How could such a man treat ‘questions of sex’? is asked not by Scott, but by Steward, and should be enclosed in quotation marks. See Stewart, 254.
“His erudition…argument”: The complete citation, which as Scott notes, is close in content to Valéry’s speech, is found on page 384 of Stewart’s biography. Scott’s quotation, “He could have no patience with anyone…” is excerpted from page 338 of Stewart’s biography.
“the ingenuity of a fertile imagination or the subtler witchery of words”: These are the closing words of Stewart’s volume? “… Anatole France must hold an exalted place for those who can appreciate the ingenuity of a fertile imagination or the subtler witchery of words” (384).
“enigmatic personality”: Scott alludes to the title of Stewart’s first chapter, “An Enigmatic Personality.” [page 615]
Introduction, Walter J. Phillips, Ten Canadian Colour Prints
Ten Canadian Colour Prints was published in Toronto by Thomas Nelson in 1927.
Walter Joseph Phillips (1884-1963): Phillips, born in England, was trained at the Birmingham Municipal School of Art. He later taught art in England and in South Africa, worked as a commercial artist where he again worked as an art teacher. Throughout the 1920s and 30s, Phillip produced watercolours, etchings, and woodcuts, and began writing a column, “Art and artists,” for the Winnipeg Tribune. A year’s leave from teaching enabled him to travel to England where he stayed with William Giles of The Original Colour Print Magazine, and studied with Yoshirigi Urushibara, a Japanese colour print artist. Despite the wide availability of his finely-crafted work, and his influence as an instructor at the Banff School of Art and at the Provincial Institute of Technology and Art in Calgary, Phillips Tippet and Douglas Cole observe in Phillips in Print: the Selected Writings of Walter J. Phillips on Canadian Nature and Art (Winnipeg: Manitoba Record Society, 1982), Phillips’ chosen media, his artistic emphasis on intimate, picturesque views of nature, his dislocation from the Toronto art scene, and his frequently-avowed distaste for modernism were all factors determining his obscurity. Philips published one book, The Technique of the Color Wood-Cut (New York: Brown-Robertson, 1926); four folios (including Ten Canadians Colour Prints); and numerous articles on wood-cut-techniques and art in western Canada. Scott published a monograph on Phillips entitled Walter J. Phillips (Toronto: Ryerson P, 1947).
“unsized” paper is paper which has not been coated with a substance to smooth its surface. The untreated fibres of unsized paper absorb ink or paint in a less regular fashion than in sized paper. Phillips’ experience with Urushibara led him to experiment with different sizing techniques—including a rice-based sizing paste— on the paper used to produce his wood-cuts.
In this article Scott differentiates between colour prints and colour etchings, which suggests that he views the difference between the tow as follows: in a colour print, the image is the result of a design in ‘relief’ (standing out form the plate’s surface), [page 616] whereas in an etching the image is produced by a design carved into the surface of a plate. In fact, an etching is also a print.
Francis Gearhart: Scott misspells Frances (Hammel) Gearhart (1869-1958), an American block printer, engraver, and etcher noted for her colour prints of the Sierras.
Seaby: Allen W. Seaby (1867-1953) was a painter and colour woodcut artist. In addition to his work as an artist, Seaby servedas a professor at the University of REadign from 1920 to 1933. His writing on woodblock print techniques influenced Phillips.
Scott’s quotation, “Pour not forth words where there is musician,” is taken not from Ecclesiastes, but from one of the Apocryphal books of the Bible, Ecclesiasticus, also known as Sirach. The full verse reads: “ Pour not out words where there is a musician, and shew not forth wisdom out of time” (Sirach 32:4).
My Best Piece of Work
The subtitle of this mutli-author piece, published in the Toronto Star Weekly (2 November 1929) General Section 1:9, is “Canadian Authors Tell Why.” The other Canadian authors who tell why Sir Gilbert Parker, Arthyr Stringer, Archie P. McKishnie, Katharine Hale, Laura G. Salverson, Robert Stead, A.M. Stephen, tom MacInnes, Marshall Saunders, Sir Andrew MacPhail, Marion Keith, Wilson Macdonal, Nellie L. McClung, W.A. Fraser, Janey Canuck 9Emily Murphy), L.M. Montgomery, Ven. H.J. Cody, M.A. and Ernest Thomson seton. Most of the authors, including Scott, are depicted in photographs. Scott contributed a few lines to a somewhat similar piece entitled “Some Living Canadian Poets,” and subtitled “From a paper read at a meeting of the Baconian Club of this city, By Frank Lawson,” published in The London [England] News (Saturday 19 May 1900): 9-10. Lawson fashioned his contribution with the help of letters from Scott, Pauline Johnsonk, Archibald Lampman, Charles G.D. Roberts, WW. Campbell, Bliss Carman, Jean Blewett, F.G. Scott, Charles Mair, J.W. Bengough and W.H. Drummond. Scott wrote as follows: “It is always difficult to answer questions of the kind you propund. I could hardly be more particular as regards the first than to say that I think probably my best work up to this time is contained in some of the comparatively long poems in the book just published by Copeland & Day, entitled Labor [page 617] and the Angel. As regards your second question I always value very highly the appreciation of persons who understand the nature of poetry, who have the poetic instinct and who can discern the technical as well as the emotional value of the poem” (10).
“it is only the disease of the unskilful to think rude things greater than polished”: Scott quotes rather loosely from Ben Jonson’s Timber (1640): “But in these things, the unskilfull are naturally deceive’d, and judging wholly by the bulke, thinke rude things greater then polish’d; and scatter’d more numerious, then compos’d…”.
Archibald Lampman [Memorial]
This piece was published in a pamphlet, Addresses Delivered at the Dedication of the Archibald Lampman Memorial Cairn at Morpeth, Ontario (London: The Western Ontario Branch of the Canadian Author’s Association, 1930). The dedicatory ceremony (and the pamphlet) also included addresses by William Sherwood Fox (“Address of the Chairman”), Brigadier-General E. A. Cruickshank (“The National Importance of Memorials”), J.H. Cameron (“the Place of the Canadian Poets in National Education”), Arthur Stringer (“the Poet in Everyday Life”), and a poem (“The Lampman Cairn at Morpeth”) by Nathananiel A. Benson. Scott’s address was last. The other luminary in attendance was Sir Charles G.D. Roberts. Passages in this address were recycled from the “Memoir” to The Poems of Archibald Lampman and the “Introduction” to Lyrics of Earth.
Browning’s poem: Scott puns on the opening lines of Robert Browning’s “Memorabilia” (Men and Women; 1855): “ah, did you once see Shelley plain, / And did he stop and speak with you?”
Elia: See Scott’s Introduction to Lampman’s Lyrics of earth.
The great War: World War I.
“fane”: A temple.
“poetry had ‘seized and enveloped…’”: See Scott’s Introduction to Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth.
“If, then, poetry is the transfiguration of life…”: Scott excerpts the second and third paragraphs of Lampman’s essay, “The Modern [page 618] school of Poetry in England” (see D.M.R. Bentley’s The Essays and Reviews of Archibald Lampman, 58-9 and 248-9). The undated, unsigned holograph is held in the National Archives (MG 29D59 vol. 2, 680-93). The idea of poetry as “the transfigurationof life” is itself, as Lampman explains in his essay, borrowed from an essay by English poet Alfred Austin (1835-1913), “Old and New Canons of Criticism,” originally published in the Contemporary Review (London), and reprinted in the Living Age (Boston) 152, 5th ser. 37. 1963 (February 4, 1882): 323-32 and 387-98.
Matthew Arnold: The statement, “the greatness of the great poets is that their virtue is sustained,” which derives from Arnold’s essay, “The Study of Poetry,” contains a silent ellipsis. The quotation should read “…the greatness of the great poets, the power of their criticism of life, is that their virtue is sustained.” See Poetry and Criticism of Matthew Arnold. A. Dwight Culler, ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), 319.
Tennyson: Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892), the English poet and Poet Laureate (1850-1892). Some of his best known poems include “The Lady of Shallott,” Ulysses,” and “In Memoriam.”
[Review of George Herbert Clarke, The Hasting Day: Poems]
Clarke was a long-time friend and correspondent of Scott’s, and may have been behind the honorary doctorate that Queen’s University awarded Scott on October 21, 1939. Clarke was an English professor and member of the editorial board of Queen’s Quarterly when he asked Scott to review his book of poems, published in London by J.M. Dent in 1930. The review appeared in Queen’s Quarterly 37 (Spring 1930), 425-7.
editions of Shelley and Browning: George Herbert Clarke (1873-1953) contributed to the Riverside Literature Series’ Selected Poems of Percy Bysshe Shelley (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1907). However, he does not appear to have edited a similar volume on Browning, as Scott suggests. Clarke’s lasting contribution to poetry comes in the form of his two war poetry anothologies, both published by Houghton Mifflin in Boston: A Treasury of War Poetry: British and American Poems of the World War, 1914-1917 (1917); and The New Treasury of War Poetry; Poems of the Second World War (1943). [page 619]
“Look for me in the nurseries of heaven”: The last line of the poem, “to My Godchild,” by Francis Thompson (1859-1907). The poem appears in Thompson’s first collection, Poems (London: Elkin Matthews and John Lane, 1893).
“the disease of the unskilful…”; See Scott’s essay, “My Best Piece of Work,” in which he employs another variant on Jonson’s epigram.
Foreword, Elise Aylen, Roses of Shadow
Elise Aylen, 42 years Scott’s junior, became his second wife in 1931. Roses of Shadow, published in Toronto by Macmillan in 1930, was her first book. See Robert L. McDougall’s “The Story of Elise Aylen,” in Totems: Essays on the Cultural History of Canada (Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1990).
Aylen’s”dithyrambic lines to a picture of Lawren Harris,” may be found in a poem entitled “Above Lake Superior: Ojn a Picture by Lawren Harris,” on page 5. The poem describes the landscape in Harris’ c. 1924 painting of the same name as “austere” and “oppressed.” Harris (1885-1970), a Canadian artist, was a founder of the Group of Seven, and a member of Scott’s social circle. Aylen’s sonnet, “Madonna col Figlio,” refers to a Virgin and Child painting by Sandro Botticelli (c. 1444-1510).
The Administration of Indian affairs in Canada
This essay was published in Ottawa by the Canadian Institute of International Affairs, 1931.
French reserve lands for Indians: See Sctott’s “Indian Affairs, 1763-1841.”
British extinction of Indian title: for an explanation of the reserve system, see the notes to Scott’s “The Last of the Indian Treaties.” For information on the enfranchisement and citizenship, see “The Red Indian.”
Sir William Johnson: See See Scott’s “Indian Affairs, 1763-1841.”
Tuberculosis, also known as consumption, is a wasting disease caused by the presence of small cells called tubercules in bodily [page 620] organs. These tubercules multiply and mutate, ultimately destroying their host organ, and causingdeath by organ failure, fever, andhaemorrhaging. Tuberculosis spredss through inhalation ofair form infected persons and through the consumptionof diseased milk or meat. Though it may be fatal, tuberculosis is preventable and treatable in its early stages by rest, good food, and xposure to fresh arir and sunlight, which destroy the tuberules.
“one governor of Upper Canada”: See “Indian Affairs, 1840-1867” for Sir Francis Bond Head’s full remarks and their context.
Indian Wars in the United States: A broad, ahistorical term which refers to the series of confrontations between Native Americans and European settlers. Since Scott alludes to “the opening up of the western United States” as he makes use of this term, it is likely that one of the Indian wars” to which he refers is Pontiac’s 1763 rebellion in the Northwest Territory.
Great War: See Scott’s “The Canadian Indians and the Great World War” for details of heroic, voluntary Native involvement in the World War I.
Department of Indian Affairs: Note that the portfolio, as presently constituted, is no longer combined with the Ministry of the Interior. The current name of the portfolio is the Deapartment of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND). Scott’s essays on Indian affairs form a substantial part of the historical background of the department as outlined on their website at the time ofwriting.
Indian identity: The question of defining who is and is not an Indian under the law is historically complex and is directly related to issues of land title and enfranchisement. At this time, as Scott explains in “Indian Affairs, 1840-1867,” enfranchisement (whether voluntary or involuntary) was an act whereby an Indian ceased “in all [legal] respects to be an Indian.” An earlier version of thelegal definition of the term “Indian” which Scott cites here appears in 14 and 15 Victoria (1851) Cap. 59 (Province of Canada) An Act to Repeal in Part and to Amend an Act, Intitled, An Act for the Better Protection of the Lands and Property of the Indians in Lower Canada. Section II reads:
And be it declared and enacted, That for the purpose of determining what persons are entitled to hold, use or enjoy the lands and other immoveable property belonging to or appropriated to the use of the various Tribes or Bodies of Indians in Lower Canada, the following [page 621] persons and classes of persons, and none other, shall be considered as Indians belonging to the Tribe or Body of Indians interested in any such lands or immoveable property:
Firstly. All persons of Indian blood, reputed to belong to the particular Tribe or Body of Indians interested in such lands or immoveable property, and their descendants:
Secondly. All person residing among such Indians, whose parents were or are, or either of them was or is, descended on either side from Indians, or an Indian reputed to belong to the particular Tribe or Body of Indians interested in such lands or immoveable property, and the descendants of all such person: And
Thirdly. All women, now or hereafter to be lawfully married to any of the persons included in the several classes hereinbefore designated; the children issue of such marriages, and their descendants.
See Canadian Indians and the Law: selected Documents, 1663-1972. Derek Smith, ed. (Ottawa: McClelland and Stewart, 1975), 47-8.
Scott cites “the statute of 1880 governing the Department of Indian Affairs,” otherwise known as 43 Victoria (1880) Cap. 28 (Canada), An Act to Amend and Consolidate the Laws Respecting Indians (The Indian Act, 1880), assented to 7 May 1880. The material cited is taken from article 3 of the amendment. See Smith, 118.
Bill C-31, An Act to Amend the Indian Act, passed by Parliament 28 June 1985, once again modified the legal definition of “Indian.” (Other changes to the Act included in this bill gave band councils wider powers over the development of reserve lands and the drafting of by-laws). Persons who had been erased from the department of Indian Affairs’ list of registered Indians, including Indian women who married whites or non-registered Indians, children adopted or born out of wedlock, and those persons who lost Indian status through enfranchisement or discrimination, could now apply to have their names added to the Department’s Indian Register. The current legal definition of “Indian” is simply a person recorded in the Indian Register, which the Department continues to maintain.
“Algonkin stock”: This is a reference to the linguistic grouping of many separate nations. For an excellent study of the trade-influenced migrations of Canadian Natives and the consequent geographic division of linguistic groups, see Arthur J. Ray’s Indians in the Fur Trade: their role as hunters, trappers and middlemen in the lands southwest of Hudson Bay 1660-1870 (Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1974). [page 622]
Eskimo: The northern people formerly referred to as the Eskimo prefer the name Inuit. Similarly, the Slave Indians are known as the Dene.
Indian Trust Fund: This fund is described in Sections 70-71 of The Indian Act (1880), and is directly related to the contemporary view of Indians as wards of the state. Moneys arising from the sale of lands or property did not necessarily revert to the bands whose lands were alienated, as the statutes below demonstrate, but were held “in trust’ for Natives by the Receiver-General. Trust seems an odd term to describe this arrangement.
70. The Governor in Council may, subject to the provisions of this Act, direct how, and in what manner, and by whom the money arising from sale of Indian lands, and from any timber on Indian lands or reserves, or from any other source for the benefit of Indians (with the exception of any small sum not exceeding ten per cent. Of the proceeds of any lands, timber or property, which may be agreed at the time of the surrender to be paid to the members of the band interested therein), shall be invested from time to time, and how the payments or assistance to which the Indians may be entitled shall be made or given, and may provide for the general management of such money, and direct what percentage or proportion thereof shall be set apart from time to time, to cover the cost of and attendant upon the management of reserves, lands, property and moneys under the provisions of this Act, and for the construction or repair of roads passing through such reserves or lands, and by way of contribution to schools frequented by such Indians.
71. The proceeds arising from the sale or lease of any Indian lands, or from the timber, haym stone minerals or other valuable theron, or on a reserve, shall be paid to the Receiver-General to the credit of the Indian fund (Smith 136-7).
agreements of 14 December 1929 regarding hunting and fishing for Alberta and Manitoba Indians: The agreements are, respectively, An Act respecting the transfer of the Natural Resources of Alberta (30 May 1930), and An Act respecting the transfer of the Natural Resources of Manitoba (30 May 1930). The Memoranda of Agreement were made 14 December 1929, as Scott indicates. The clause beginning, “In order to secure to the Indians of the province the continuance of the supply of game and fish for their support…” may be found in article 12 of the Alberta agreement, and article 13 [page 623] of the Manitoba agreement. See Acts of the Parliament of the Dominion of Canada (George V; Ottawa: Frederick Albert Acland, 1930). The issues covered in these acts were controversial. See Scott’s “Relations of Indians to Wild Life Conservation.”
residential schools were schools run by the Department of Indian Affairs and various religious denominations, and attended by Indian children. The aim of these schools, as Scott discusses at length in “Indian Affairs, 1867-1912,” was to promote Native assimilation into white culture by removing Native children from the reserve environment. The horrifying legacy of residential schools includes mental and physical abuse, unnecessary deaths and health-related problems from unsanitary tuberculosis-causing conditions, and the suppression of spoken Native languages and cultural rituals—a vivid contrast with Scott’s sanguine visions of “successful” assimilation.
New England Company: Here Scott refers not to the New England Company founded I 1628 for the purpose of establishing an English colony on Massachusetts Bay, New England, but rather to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England, founded by John Eliot (1604-1690). Eliot’s translation of the Bible into the Native tongue of Natick was also the first Bible to be printed in North America.
“first Church” in Upper Canada: St. Paul’s, Her Majesty’s Royal Chapel of the Mohawks, was built in 1785, and still stands near Brantford, Ontario.
Recollet Fathers were the first French Roman Catholic priests to work among the Huron at the mission of Sainte Marie in 1615. The site of the mission, near present-day Midland, Ontario, has been reconstructed as a living-history museum.
Church of England chaplain who ran a boarding school at the Red River in 1822: This reference is most likely to one John West, sent out to the Red River Colony by the Church Missionary Society and The Hudson’s Bay Company in 1820. See Sylvia van Kirk’s “Many Tender Ties”: Women in Fur-trade Society, 1670-1870 (Winnipeg: Watson & Dwyer, 1980), 145.
Department assistance to promising residential school graduates: See Scott’s enthusiastic description of the file Hills, “experiment” in “The Canadian Indians and the Great World War.”
Trachoma: A contagious eye disease which causes the inner eyelids to become inflamed. [page 624]
the coincidence of medical care and annuity money: See Scott’s “the Last of the Indian Treaties” for a description of vaccinations of Indians by the physician accompanying the treaty party.
Prohibition of Sun Dances, pot-latch and a wearing of native costume without consent of the Superintendent General: The pot-latch was forbidden from 1884-1951. The relevant regulations may be found in the 19 April 1880 An Act further to amend “the Indian Act, 1880.” Article 3 states:
Every Indian or other person who engages in or assists in celebrating the Indian festival known as the “Potlatch” or in the dance know as the “Tamanawas” [sic] is guilty of a misdemeanour, and shall be liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than six nor less than two months in any gaol or other place of confinement; and any Indian or other person who encourages, whether directly or indirectly, an Indian or Indians to get up such a festival or dance, or to celebrate the same, or who shall assist in the celebration of the same is guilty of alike offence, and shall be liable to the same punishment.
A pot-latch is a ceremonial gift-giving deigned to display the wealth and prestige of the giver, and the goods given away on such occasions ranged from coppers to blankets or household goods.
The term “tamanawas dance “ (the word is derived from a Lower Chinook word meaning, “being endowed with super-natural power”) signified different rituals to different peoples. For Tsimshian-speakers, this involved a dog-eating ceremony, while for the Kwakiutl, Bella Coola and Bella Bella, the ceremony was one of ritual cannibalism. As Douglas Cole and Ira Chaikin explain in An Iron Hand Upon the People: the law Against the Potlatch on the NorthwestCoast (Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 1990), both forms of the ceremony “were expression of repugnance at practices unacceptable in human society, but were acted out in realistic ways horrifying to white society” (12). As a collector of Indian artifacts, Scott’s own involvement in the pot-latch crackdown is questionable. See Stan Dragland’s Floating Voice: Duncan Campbell Scott and the Literature of Treaty 9 (Toronto, Anansi, 1994), 256-60.
Indian Councils’ mandate: Scott quotes selectively from Section 74 of 43 Victoria (1880) Cap. 28 (Canada). An Act to Amend and consolidate the Laws Respecting Indians (The Indian Act, 1880), where Sections 72-74 set out the Council’s mandate. Note that Scott leaves out the fist item on the list of Council prerogative, which is to [page 625] select the religious denomination of the school to be established on a reserve. His item c appears in the amendment as “4. The repression of intemperance and profligacy.” The most material omission, however, is item 11 in the amendment, which reads as follows:
11. The imposition of punishment, by fine or penalty, or by imprisonment, or both, for infraction of any of such rules or regulations; the fine or penalty in no case to exceed thirty dollars, and the imprisonment not to exceed thirty days; the proceedings for the imposition of such punishment to be taken in the usual summary way before a Justice of the Peace, following the procedure on summary trials before a justice out of sessions (Smith 138).
A Message from the President
Scott was elected President of the Canadian Author’s Association for a two year term in 1931. His address to the membership was published in The Author’s Bulletin 9:1 (September 1931):4. The Bulletin was the official organ of the C.A.A.
Foreword, Percy F. Godenrath, Compiler, Catalogue of the Manoir Richiliu Collection of North American Indians
The Catalogue was published in Montreal by Canada Steamship Lines in 1932.
M’Kenny: An American Quaker merchant who became a soldier during the War of 1812, Colonel Thomas Loraine McKenney (1785-1859) subsequently enjoyed a successful career in the U.S civil service. McKenney’s association with Native peoples began with his 1816 appointment to the position of Superintendent of Indian Trade. In 1824, he entered the administration of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. As was the case with Scott’s poetry, many of McKenney’s “Indian Writings” were undertaken as a result of treaty trips. His Sketches of a Tour to the Lakes, of the Character and Customs of the Chippewary Indians, and of Incidents connected with the Treaty of Fond du Lac (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas Jr., 1827) was illustrated by [page 626] J.O. Lewis, whom Scott mentions as the author of The Aboriginal Portfolio.
James Hall (1793-1868): Like George Catlin, Hall trained as a lawyer, and, after serving in the War of 1812, he eventually rose to a position as a circuit court Judge on the rough south-eastern Illinois frontier in 1825. Hall was also active in various literary pursuits; with Robert Blackwell, he founded the literary journal The Illinois Monthly Magazine in 1830, and published numerous books detailing his adventures in the west. Hall and McKenney’s sympathetic The Indian Tribes of North America (1836; reprinted 1933) appears to have been ahead of its time in many respects. Although they make use of English transcriptions of Natives; speeches, the authors are careful to note, “it is unfortunate that most of the interpreters through who the productions of the aboriginal intellect have reached us, have been so entirely illiterate as to be equally incapable of appreciating the finer touches of sentiment and eloquence, and of expressing them appropriately in our language” (185). McKenney and Hall proposed to merge their pictorial history with Catlin’s endeavour, but Catlin refused their offer.
C.B. King: An American portraitist, Charles Bird King (1785-1862), studied art with Benjamin West in London. On McKenney’s suggestion to James Barbour, then the U.S Secretary of War, King was retained to paint detailed and exact oil portraits of Natives for the War Department’s Indian Gallery. King painted from life, and also copied some of the works of J.O. Lewis for the Department.
J[ames]O[tto] Lewis (1799-1858): This American artist, upon hearing that King’s copies of his workds were to be used in McKenney and Hall’s forthcoming publication, understandably rushed his own version of the originals into print. The Aboriginal Port-Folio (Philadelphia: Lehamn & Duval) was released in 1835.
Catlin: George Catlin (1796-1872), was a former lawyer turned nomadic adventurer and artist in oils. Scott quotes from the opening three pages of Letter No. 1 of Catlin’s book, The Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, Written During Eight Years’ Travel Amongst the Wildest Tribes of Indians in North America, 1832-39 (London: Egyptian Hall, 1841). While Catlin’s history is an intriguing and valuable study, it is not the infallible visual documentary that Scott claims; for instance, most of the Indians portrayed in the engravings are shown with blue eyes.[page 627]
Thayendanegea [Joseph Brant]; and Sir William Johnson: See Scott’s essay, “Indian Affairs, 1763-1841.”
Red Jacket: A Seneca chief whose portrait appears in McKenney and Hall’s History, Red Jacket (1758-1830) is described as “the able advocate of the rights of his tribe, and the fearless opposer of all ecroachement―one who was not awed by the white man’s power, nor seduced by his professions of friendship” (9-10). Red Jacket, who had initially supported resistance to the wave of white settlers, first served as a British ally during the American Revolution (hence his name, thought to originate with the colour of the British military garb), and later fought as an ally of the United States during the War of 1812.
Kiontwogky, or Cornplanter (1740-1836): A mixed-blood Seneca chief, and ally of the British during the American Revolution. Cornplanter’s conciliatory gestures towards whites were opposed by Red Jacket. McKenney and Hall reprint Cornplanter’s eloquent protest against the breaking of treaties made with the Seneca at Fort Stanwix in their volume.
Scott’s address was printed in The Author’s Bulletin 10:1 (September 1932): 6-7. Scott’s address was read in English and then in French by Judge E. Fabre Surveyer, National Vice-President of the Canadian Author’s Association. Scott remarked on his two absentee addresses (see also “A Message from the President”) in 1941, when twentieth anniversary messages were collected from C.A.A. Past Presidents:
I was president of the Association during 1931-1933. It was an eventful and successful period. I was in Europe for the first twelve months, and in my second term the Association carried out a memorable tour of the British Isles without my leadership. This statement might be held to imply that the Presidency is unimportant, but that is not my opinion. I believe that the past success of the organization came from the character and ability of the National Executive. I would urge the members to maintain in the future a strong National Executive and give it loyal support. It is first by such initiative and afterwards by mutual sympathetic cooperation that the aims of the Association can best be achieved. (The Author’s Bulletin 18:1 (April-July 1941): 14) [page 628]
Scott had contributed to a previous gathering of messages from past presidents in 1939. The messages were published in the Author’s Bulletin 16:3 (October 1939). Scott and Sir Charles G.D. Roberts delivered extemporaneous remarks which were promised for a later Bulletin but never appeared.
Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [I.A Leechbook of the Fifteenth Century / Primitive Physic]
This, the first of five columns that Scott contributed to The Ottawa Journal (Saturday 10 July 1937), was headed “In the absence of Mr. Burrell, written by another.” “Another” is identified as D.C.S. at the foot of each column. Each column takes the title of Martin Burrell’s regular Journal department, “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner.” “The Journal got me (after pressure0 to do Burrell’s column when he was away ill and I did five weeks, 2400 words each. Now he is home and takes it up and I miss the compulsion.” (Scott to Pelham Edgar, 8 august, 1937). Burrel was responsible (with Scott’s collusion) for putting into circulation the Well-known story of hot “The Piper of Arll” set John Masefield to writing poetry. On 9 December, 1926, Scott wrote: “I have pleasure in sending herewith a cop of the letter. I think it very good of Masefield to allow us to use this. It will understandably be quoted, perhaps widely.” The passage from Masefield’s letter appears near the end of Burrell’s review of Scott’s Poems in his column on Saturday, 18 December, 1926 (reprinted in Burrell’s Betwixt Heaven and Charing Cross. Toronto: MacMillan, 1928). The Masefield-Scott connection took on a new life when the British poet became Poet Laureate in 1930. In 1942 (19 August), Scott discouraged A.J.M. Smith from quoting the letter, and referred him instead to Masefield’s biography In The Mill (New York: Macmillian, 1941), which still stresses the importance of “The Piper of Arll,” but naturally puts the poet’s literary awakening in the context of other reading he was doing while working in a New York City carpet factory. The Masefield claim to fame was still dear to Scott in the year of his death (See “Message to the Students” in this volume.)
Martin Burrell (1885-1938): The English-born Burrel was an active member of the federal Progressive Conservative party, and an author. His interest in fruit-growing led to his assumption of the [page 629] portfolio of the Minister of agriculture in 1911, and he held several other positions of responsibility while in office. In 1920, Burrell became Parliamentary Librarians. He began contributing his column to the Ottawa Journal (also known as the Ottawa Evening Journal until 1949) in 1924.
Royal Society: Scott refers not to the Royal Society of Canada, to which he belonged, but to the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, which published noted Egyptologist Warren royal Dawson’s collection, A leechbook; or, Collection of medical recipes of the fifteenth century. The text of Ms. No. 136 of the Medical Society of London (Published for the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom under the terms of the Dr. Richards Trust. London: Macmillan, 1934). Scott also adds an incorrect apostrophe in his mention of the Dr. Richards Trust.
probatum est: From the root probo; to make good; to approve or commend. Few of the recipes listed in the Leechbook carry the compiler’s recommendation.
pottage: A soup or stew.
bray: To crush into small pieces using mortar and pestle.
War of the roses: The Battles fought on English soil between rival houses of York (symbolized by the white rose) and Lancaster (a red rose), during the period of 1455-1485. See note on Henry VI below.
Henry VI: Henry VI reigned as king of England from 1422 to 1461, was deposed and imprisoned, then returned to power for a short period again in 1470-1. Henry VI is perhaps best remembered as the founder of Eton College (1440), but he was on the whole a weak and unpopular ruler, Henry’s marriage to the politically-astute Margaret of Anjou in 1445 only reinforces his unpopularity, which had begun with his cessions to France following the Hundred Years’ War. When Henry VI experiences a bout of insanity in 1453, the Duke of York was made protector of the kingdom over Margaret’s stringent protests, Margaret established political alliances with the powerful Duke of Somerset, and a battle at St. Alaban’s in 1455 hailed the beginning of formal hostilities between Yorkists and Lancastrians. After a Yorkist victory at Nothampton, York’s son Edward was crowned Edward IV in 1461. Henry VI was briefly reinstated with the help of Louis XI of France, but Edward IV retaliated, and imprisoned Margaret and Henry, who died soon afterward, The War of the Roses continued after Henry VI’s death, [page 630] however Edward IV’s son (Edward V], who had succeeded to the thorn in 1483, was displaced by his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester (later crowned Richard III). Richard III himself was then killed by the Lancastrian Henry Tudor (Henry VII) at the battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, and a succession of Tudor kings and queens ensued,
Burton: Robert Burton (1577-1640), English clergyman and writer His frequently-reprinted encyclopaedic analysis, The Anatomy of Melancholy. What it is, With all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostickes, & severall cures of it. In three Partitionss, with their severall Sections, members & subsections, Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, opened & cut up (1621) originally appeared under the pseudonym Democritus Junior. The quotation from Burton, “I am not disposed to tell it; if you be very desirous to know it, when I meet you next I will per-adventure tell you what it is in your ear,” is found in Part 3, Sect. 3, Memb. 4, Subs. 2, “Love Meanchol: Cure of Jealousy”: “One other soveraigne remedy I could repeat, an espeicall Antidote against Jealousie, an excellent cure, but I am not now disposed to tell it, not that like a covetous Empericke, I conceale it for any gaine, but some other reasons, I am not willing to publish it; if you be very desirous to know it, when I meet you next, I will peradventure tell you what it is in your eare.” See The Anatomy of Melancholy. Thomas C. Faulkner et al, ed. Vol. III (Oxford: Clarendon, 1989), 329.
spikenard: Nardotachys gradiflora, a plant with an aromatic rhizome. More probably Conzya Sayarrose, or ploughman’s spikenard, a plant used to heal wounds and relieve itching.
elecampagene: Inula helenium, a sunflower-like plant, with bitter, medicinal roots and leaves, It is used variously as a diuretic, expectorant, and antiseptic.
tormentil: Potentiall erecta, a yellow-flowered plant. Its root has astringent qualities.
philipendula: Spiraea Filipendula.
smallage: Apium graveolens, or wild celery.
saxifrage: Saxifraga, a low-growing rock plant with white or yellow flowers, used as a diuretic and stomachic medicine.
galingale: Cyperus longus, a sedge with an aromatic rhizome; or perhaps an alternate spelling for galangal (Alpina officinarum), a stimulant.
Alexanders: Smyrnium olusatrum, a salad plant similar to celery. The plant is also known as stancmarch or horse parsley. [page 631]
Pellitory:Anacyclus pyrethrum, a daisy-like plant. Its root acts as a local irritant, and is used to relieve toothache.
Wesley: John Wesley (1703-1791), English clergyman and author. Wesley is best known for his role as the founder of Methodism, a sect of the Anglican church which believes in salvation through faith in Christ alone. His practical book, Primitive Physick, or an Easy and Natural Mehtod of Curing Most Diseases, was published anonymously in London by printer Thomas Trye in 1747, ten years after the fist publication of his famous hymns.
Chaucer: Scott quotes lines from the General Prologues to fourteenth-century soldier, diplomat, and writer Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales. The passage, as printed in the third edition of The Riverside Chaucer (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 30, reads as follows:
With us ther was a DOCTOUR of PHISIK;
In al this world ne was ther noon hym lik,
To speke of phisik and of surgerye,
For he was grounded in astronomye.
He kepte his pacient a ful greet deel
In houres by his magyk natureel.
He knew the cause of everich maladye,
Were it of hoot, or coold, or moyste, or drye
And where they engendred, and of what humour.
He was a verray, parfit praktisour:
And yet he was but esy of dispence;
He kepte that he wan in pestilence.
For gold in phisik is a cordial,
Therefore he lovede gold in special.
(II. 411-22; 441-4)
Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [II. Alfred Einstein, A Short History of Music / Edgar Lee Masters, Life of Walt Whitman]
This article appeared in The Ottawa Journal on July 17, 1937.
A Short History of Music: Alfred Einstein’s popular history was first translated into English in 1936, and appeared in numerous new [page 632] editions and reprints. Scott’s quotations from einstein’s book (NY: Knopf, 1947) include” “ To think of the miracle of human genius is to thin of Schubert,” 194; “Bach is the greatest Christian-preacher since Luther” [the 1947 editions reads, “ the greatest of preachers since Luther”, 133. Einstein’s assessment of jazz as “the most abominable treason against all the music of western civilization,” and “natural, primitive and barbaric” appears on page 251 of the 1947 edition, but vanishes from later editions. The conclusion, “We can only see that we are at the end of another chapter,” found on page 252, is also altered in subsequent editions. Finally, quotation marks should appear around the two sentences referring to Bach’s B minor Mass (from “Finally” to “made one”); these words are taken from Einstein’s page 135. Scott makes the common error of confusing Alfred Einstein the musicologist (1880-1952) with Albert Einstein the scientist and mathematician (1879-1955).
“Tithonus”: A poem by English poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1883).
“a first edition of ‘Crawford’” The precise ‘Crawford’ to whom (or to which, if ‘Crawford’ is a title) Scott refers here is uncertain from the context; given his interest and involvement in Canadian poetry, however, it may be a reference to the work of Isabella Valancy Crawford (1850-1887).
“Browning says, ‘God has a few of us that He whispers in the ear…’” These lines occur in Robert Browning’s poem, “Abt Vogler.” II. 87-8; first published in Dramatis Personae (London: Chapman and Hall, 1864).
“Bernard Shaw say, ‘The poetry that lies too deep for music’”: See Scott’s “George Bernard Shaw.”
Leaves of Grass: Scott was evidently familiar with the 1855 edition of Whitman’s poms, as he cites the preface to this edition in his presidential address to the Royal Society of Canada, “Poetry and Progress.”
James Joyce’s Ulysses, first published in The Little Review and The Egoist (1914-21), was eventually published in England by the Bodley Head.
Edgar Lee Masters: American poet (1867-1950) Edgar Lee Masters’ Spoon River Anthology (1915) is a series of poetic monologues spoken by the dead in a cemetery based on the graveyards of several Illinois towns. The work was serialized by editor William Marion Reedy from 1915 to 1916. Masters’ biography, titled simply, Whit-[page 633]man (not the Life of Walt Whitman, as Scott suggests), was published in New York by Charles Scribner’s Sons in 1937. Quotations from the book are identified below.
“That Shakespeare, the Bible, and any book whatever, can be so constantly studied…,” 237.
Masters’ reference to Browning’s “Herve Riel”: The reference on which Scott bases his criticisms reads, “Browning in ‘Hervé Riel,’ and Tennyson in ‘The Revenge’ made England immortal land and spirit. Lesser men, like Noyes and Masefield, have done for England what Whitman did not do for America” (325). Given his collegial relations with Noyes and Masefield, it is likely that Masters’ appraisal of these poets as “lesser Men” riled Scott.
Anne Gilchrist (1828-1885) “of England, then just beyond forty and a widow (155) was an English writer in her own right, as Scott hints. Her Dictionary of National Biography notice of Blake is located on pages 642-6 of that series, Volume II (London: Oxford UP, 1921-22). Anne Gilchrist’s biography, Mary Lamb, was published in London by W.H. Allen in 1883, Masters’ summation of her relationship with Whitman, “Her eager, almost frantic love came to whatever she was able to take from it in the way of spiritual sustenance,” is given on page 166, as is her letter to Whitman from England: “It may be that this shaping of my life course towards you…” Note, however, that the description of Mrs. Gilchrist attributed to William Rossetti by Scott was actually made by Edward Carpenter (see Masters, 226-7).
Dante Gabriel Rossetti spoke of Mr. Gilchrist as “a farsighted and nobly honest writer on subjects of which few indeed are able to treat worthily”: This quotation does not appear in Masters’ book. After Alexander’s premature death of scarlet fever, Rossetti had arranged with his widow to complete the editing of the Life of William Blake which Gilchrist had begun, and to add a memoir of Gilchrist, whom he admired, to the work. Although Rossetti contributed a supplementary chapter and added to Gilchrist’s chapter on “Inventions to the Book of Job.” Anne Gilchrist elected to write her own memoir for inclusion in the second edition (1880) of the biography.
“something too much of this”: Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Act III, scene ii. [page 634]
“Lincoln elegy”: Scott refers to Whitman’s poem: “O Captain! My Captain!” Written for Abraham Lincoln, and published in 1865.
Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [III. English Writer in Italy / Robert Herrick]
Scott’s column was printed in The Ottawa Journal on July 24, 1937. The first part of this became Section VI of “Wayfares” In The Circle of Affection; the second part became Section III.
Edward Gibbon: See Scott’s “A Booklover’s Corner [V],” in which Gibbon is profiled.
“He should be endowed with an active, indefatigable vigor of mind and body…”: See The Autobiography of Edward Gibbon. Oliphant Smeaton, ed. (London: J.M. Dent), 124.
“knowledge of men and books and freedom from domestic prejudice”: This quotation is also drawn from Gibbon’s Autobiography, 123.
“It was a Rome, on the 15th of October, 1764, as I sat musing amid the runs of the Capitol…”: See D.M. Low’s biography, Edward Gibbon, 1737-1794 (NY: Random House, 1927), 184.
Al. Smith: “Saw the Roman Forum, and d’you know I was instructed that I stood on the very spot…”: The identity of this “modern traveler” and the context of this remark remain unknown.
Shelley’s lines, “And gray walls moulder round, on which dull Time / Feeds like slow fire upon a hoary brand…”: Scott quotes stanza L of the 1821 poem “Adonais: an Elegy on the Death of John Keats,” by Percy Bysshe Shelly (1792-1822), but omits a comma in the second line:
And gray walls moulder round, on which dull Time
Feeds, like slow fire upon a hoary brand;
And one keen pyramid with wedge sublime,
Pavilioning the dust of him who plann’d
This refuge for his memory, doth stand
Like flame transfor’d to marble; and beneath,
A field is spread, on which a newer band
Have pitch’d in Heaven’s smile their camp of death
Welcoming him we lose with scarce extinguish’d breath.
Shelly’s Stanza also refers obliquely to the pramid of Cestius, a Roman tribune. Keats was buried in the old Protestant cemetery in Rome, near Cestius’ monument, as Shelley wrote to T.L. Peacock on Dec. 22, 1818: “the English burying-place is a green slope near the walls under the pyramidal tomb of Cestius and is, I think, the most beautiful and solemn cemetery I ever beheld.”
Keats and Severn’s lodging: The building in question is number 26, the Piazza di Spagna, near the Spanish steps in Rome. Se Scott’s essay “Wayfarers” for an explanation of the Canadain role in purchasing it.
“Arnold’s prose tribute, ‘In the saturnalia of ignoble personal passions, of which the struggle for literary success….’”: Scott refers to Matthew Arnold’s d to watch you sink by the fire-side now. “On Translating Homer.” The quotation referring to Clough may be found on page 60 of volume I, On the Classical Tradition in The Complete Prose of Matthew Arnold. R.H. Super, ed. (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan P, 1960).
Browning’s “Reading by fire-light, that great brow / And the spirit-small hand propping it”: Here, Scott misquotes stanza LII of Robert Browning’s poem, “By the Fire-Side.” The entire stanza, as printed in The Complete Poetical Works of Robert Browning. Augustine Birrell, ed. (NY: Macmillan, 1925), 248, reads:
And to watch you sink by the fire-side now
Back again, as you mutely sit
Musing by fire-light, that great brow
And the spirit-small hand propping it,
Yonder, my heart knows how!
The lines, “O lyric[L]ove[,] half angel and half bird / And all a wonder an a wild desire,” derive from Robert Browning’s poem, “The Ring and the Book,” near the end of the first section of the poem (page 666 in the edition listed above).
Landor: See Scott’s essay on Walter Savage Landor, from which he borrows liberally here. Here, Scott attributes the idea that Landor created more souls than Shakespeare to Swinburned, rather than to George Moore.
“that starling in A Sentimental Journey, saying over and over, ‘ I can’t get out’”: See notes to Scott’s travel essay, “Dieppe,” for a description of Sterne’s 1768 work. The famous scene to which Scott alludes occurs when Sterne’s narrator hears a voice in the passageway of an inn crying, “I can’t get out.” The voice belongs to a cages [page 636] startling which the narrator tries (unsuccessfully) to free; the incident deeply impresses him, however, and leads him to reflect on human nature, slavery, and liberty. See A Sentimental Journey Through France and Italy (Hertfordshire: Wordswroth, 1995), 56.
Herrick: In the course of this article, Scott quotes several lines from Robert Herrick’s poem, “A Thanksgiving to God, For his Hourse.” The line numbers are as follows, with corrections from N.J. Endicott and I. Lancashire’s 1997 edition of Herricks’ 1648 Hesperides noted in square brackets. The words , “A little house whose humble roof / Is weather-proof[:]” are lines 3-4; “The Worts, the Purslane, and the Messe / f water-cresse” [“The worts, the puslain, and the mess / Of water-cress,” are lines 31-2. Herrick’s “banishment to the loathed west,” is detailed in stanza two of his poem, “His Return to London.” The stanza with which Scott closes (from Herrick’s “Anacreontic”) should read as follows:
Born was I, to be old,
And for to die here;
After that, in the mould
Long for to lie here.
But before that day comes,
Still I be housing
For I know, in the tombs
There’s no carousing.
Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [IV. George Borrow /Sir Thomas Browne]
This article appeared in The Ottawa Journal on July 31, 1937, and later, in “Wayfarers,” The Circle of Affection, Sections I and II.
Wood Norton Hall: Scott wrote to Pelham Edgar, on 21 October, 1932, “Next week we are going to Norfolk―to spend a long weekend with some very nice folk we met at Tremezzo [on Lake Como]…”
Earlham: The full title of Percy Lubbock’s Memoir is Earlham. Reminiscences of the Authors early Life at Earlham Hall, Norfolk (London: Jonathan Cope, 1922). [page 637]
Crome: John Crome (1768-1821), was an English painter and drawing master. Crome specialized in picturesque landscapes.
Cotman: John Sell Cotman (1782-1842) was an English landscape artist, and like Crome, a member of the Norwich school of painters. This group of landscape painters and members of the Norwich Society of Artists held yearly exhibitions from 1805 to 1825 at Sir Benjamin Wrench’s Court. Crome and Cotman both served as presidents of the Society.
Arnesby Brown: Sir John Arnesby Brown (1866-1955), was an English landscape artist.
Lavengro: Borrow’s three-volume novel was first published in 1851 in London by John Murray. The third volume, which ends abruptly, finds its sequel in The Romany Rye: A Sequel to “Lavengro,” published by the same firm in 1857. page references below are to these editions.
the incident of Isopel Berners and the Flaming Tinman: in Borrow’s novel Lavengro, the protagonist, a wandering philologist christened “Lavengro,” or “word-master” by his gypsy “brother,” Jasper Petulengro, leaves London and buys a cart of a dispirited pedlar who has been forced from his territory by a terrifying half-gypsy known as the Flaming Tinman. Lavengro meets up with the Flaming Tinman, his wife, and their young fwellow-traveller, I sopel Berners, in a deserted dingle. Lavengro meets up with the Flaming tinman, his wife, and tthier young fellow-traveller, Isopel Berners, in a deserted dingle. Lavengro and the Tinman engage in a fight, in which Lavengro is soundly trounced, until Isopel directs him to hit with his right arm (which she calls “Long Melford”―the name of a a village in Suffolk). Lavengro wins the day and the dingle, as well as Isopel’s affections, though he ultimately drives Isopel from him by forcing her to learn Armenian. Scott quotes several passages from Lavengro which are identified by page below.
‘“ Tis an old saying, Jasper, that listeners hear no good of themselves…’” The Romany Rye, 77.
‘“You are born to be a great traveller…’”: Scott assumes, correctly, that Lavengro is to some extent autobiographical. The insertion of the word “spirit” in parentheses is Scott’s own; in Borrow’s novel, no translations are provided except in the course of Lavengro’s philogical discussions, and the reader is often left to determine the meanings of various words from context. [page 638]
“The Bible in Spain”: Scott refers to Borrow’s autobiographical volume, The Bible in Spain; or The Journeys, Adventures, and Imprisonments of an Englishman, in an Attempt to Circulate the Scriptures int eh Peninsula (London: J. Murray, 1843).
“The Stricken Deer” by David Cecil: Cecil’s biography, The Stricken Deer; or, The Life of Cowper, was published in London by Constable in 1930.
Borrow terms Cowper “England’s sweetest and most pious bard” in Lavngro, Vol. I, 30.
“I love to think on thee…”: Lavengro, Vol. I, 29. Borrow identifies Derenham only as “D; Scott inserts the full name into his text.
Cowper’s “John Gilpin”: The lines “Stop, stop John Gilpin! Here’s the house” may be found in the comic 1782 poem, “The Diverting History of John Gilpin,” by William Cowper (1731-1800). See Eighteenth-Century English Literature, Geoffrey Tillotson et al., eds. (Toronto: Harcourt Brace Johaovich, 1969), 1312-6. Scott removes Cowper’s capitals from the words “Dinner” and “House.” In the poem, Gilpin borrows a horse to attend his wife to Edmonton for an anniversary dinner. The horse refuses to stop at the inn, but gallops furiously to his owner’s house, and then back to town, leaving Gilpin hungry, tired and ridiculous.
“To His Coy Mistress”: Scott quotes lines 7 to 10 of Andrew Marvell’s poem. His lineation is correct, although most other editions have a semi-colon, rather than a comma, after the word “Flood.”
Sir William Osler: Osler (1849-1919) was a Canadian physician who taught and practised medicine at McGill and Johns Hopkins, and eventually became the Regius professor of medicine at Oxford. Osler also published an essay entitled Aequanimitas (1903) on the relationship between science and the humanities. In his address, “To the Student of Medicine,” Osler says of Brown’s Religio Medici that “no bok has had aso enduring and influence on my life,” which may account for Scott’s assertion that it was “one of Sir William Osler’s bed-side books.”
All references to Sir Thomas Browne refer to The Works of Thomas Browne, Charles Sayle, ed. (London: Grant Richards, 1904). The remark, possibly concerning Browne, which Scott ascribes to Charles Lamb, “You cannot make a pet book of an author whom everybody reads,” hasnot been located, though Lamb did enjoy Browne’s work, and, according to William Hazlitt, even selected [page 639]
Browne as one of the figures of English literature he would most like to meet.
Browne’s words from The Garden of Cyrus: “To keep our eyes open longer were but to act our antipodes. The huntsmen are up in America…”: Vol. III, 210.
Browne’s’ assertion, “Whether Eve was framed out to the left side of Adam I dispute no…” derives from Religio Medici, Vol. I, 34.
Brownes’s Urn[e-] Burial: The lines beginning “contriving their bodies in sweet consistencies to attend the return of their souls…” are found in Urne-Burial, Vol. III, 141, as are the references to Mizraim, balsams, and Cambyses. Brown’s full remark reads: “The Aegyptian Mummies, which Cambyses or time hath spared, avarice now consumeth. Mummie is become eMerchandise, Mizraim cures wounds, and Pharaoh is sold for balsams.” A balsam is a soothing ointment. Browne’s words, “there is nothing strictly immortal but Immortality,” may also be found in Vol. III, 142.
Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [V. Edward Gibbon]
Scott’s final contribution to Burrell’s column was printed in The Ottawa Journal, August 7, 1937.
In this article, Scott reviews D. M. Low’s biography, Edward Gibbon, 1737-1794 (NY: Random House, 1937). Low also edited Gibbon’s Journal to January 28th, 1763. My Jurnal I, II, & III and Ephemerides. (NY: W.W. Norton) in 1929. Scott mentions the Journal in the context of Low’s writing, but does not seem to quote from it. However, Scott does draw on two other sources here: The Autobiography of Edward Gibbon. Oliphant Smeaton, ed. (London: J.M. Dent), and the Private Letters of Edward Gibbon (1753-1794). Introduction by the Early of Sheffiedl. Rowland E. Prothero, ed. (London: John Murray, 1896).
“My five brothers, whose names ay be found in the parish register of Putney, I shall not pretend to lament”: “Autobiography, 20.
“too young to feel the importance of my loss”: Autobiography, 27.
“a correspondent in that neighbourhood who, without noise or scandal, might send regular and early notice of her decline and fall”: A letter written by Gibbon to Lord Sheffield from Lausanne, February 4, 1789. Letters, Vol. II, 187. [page 640]
“The Saint seems ripe for heaven”: A letter written by Gibbon to Lord Sheffield from Lausanne, June 13, 1789. Letters, Vol. II, 193.
“‘To her care I am indebted in earliest infancy for the preservation of my life…’”: Gibbon, quoted in Low’s biography, 25.
“I hesitate, from the apprehension of ridicule, when I approach the delicate subject of my early love”: Autobiography, 78.
‘“Marry your foreigner, you are independent’”: Quoted in Low’s biography, 85.
“After a painful struggle I yielded to my fate”: Autobiography, 78.
“After laying down my pen I took several turns” [June 1787]: Autobiography, 166.
“Personal beauty is an outward gift which is seldom despised…’”: Quoted in Low’s biography, 2.
“Catherine Porten has a secret place among the world’s perfect aunts”: Low, 24.
“Pavillard he found kindly and tactful, but of his wife…”: Low, 47.
“broke down for good the frontiers between sacred ad secular history”: Low, 263.
“It used to be the fashion to sneer at Gibbon’s perturbations over the French Revolution”: Low, 338.
“Gibbon’s bridge between the ancient and modern worlds remains remarkably safe”: Low, 330.
“Like a threepenny pamphlet on current affairs”: Low, 245.
“His face is one othe most singular spectacles in physiognomy…”: Low, 2.
Mme. De Genlis, who circulated “the story that Gibbon proposed wait while she range for a footman’” Low, 307.
“He amuses himself with the notion that he is not grown fatter…’” A 1787 letter to Lord Sheffield, quoted in Low, 312.
“Boswell called him ‘an ugly, affected, disgusting fellow and poisons our literary club too [sic] me”‘: Low, 229.
“I sighed as a lover, I obeyed as a son”: Low, 91.
William Law: Law (1686-1761) was a non-juring English clergyman and author of A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life, first published in 1728. Law’s Serious Call was influential with contemporary religious leaders, including Methodist founder John Wesley. Law served as tutor to Gibbon’s father and sisters, and for many years [page 641] continued to live in the same house as Gibbon’s aunt, Hester Gibbon, whom Gibbon termed “the Saint” for her devotion.
Mme. De Staël: Anne Louise Germaine Necker de Staël-Holstein (1766-1817), is known not only for her lively memoirs and letters, but as the author of the novel Corinne (1807) and a study on Germany, De l’Allemagne (1810). Mme. De Staël was the daughter of Suzanne Curchod Necker, Gibbon’s early love.
Birkbeck Hill: In a brief survey of other works on Gibbon, Low mentions that George Birkbeck Noman Hill (1835-1903) edited The Memoirs of the Life of Edward Gibbon with Various Observations and Excursions, by Himself (NY: G.P. Putman’s Sons, 1900).
The First People
This work was published in Canada, Reprinted from the Canada Number of The Times published on May 15, 1939 (London: The Times, 1939). “The chapters that follow…were written by distinguished Canadians, or by others with long experience of the Dominion, for publication on the day when King George VI and Queen Elizabeth first set foot on Canadian soil to receive the welcome that that enthusiastically loyal Dominion had been preparing for them” (1). To emphasize his distinction, Scott’s titles (C.M.G., Litt. D.) were added to his name. Scott had a hand in greeting the King and Queen, then, and also in bidding them goodbye. His “Farewell to Their Majesties” bore the following note when it was published in The Circle of Affection: “Broadcast by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation on the occasion of Their Majesties’ departure from Canada, June 15th, 1939.”
“the words of a prairie chief’: The entire speech of Wah-wee-kah-nikh-kah-oo-tah-mah-hote (the man you strike on the back) at the treaties at Forts Carlton and Pitt in 1876, as transcribed by A.G. Jackes, Secretary to the Commission headed by Lieutenant-Governor Alexander Morris, reads as follows: “Pity the voice of the Indian, if you grant what we request the sound will echo through the land; open the way; I speak for the children that they may be glad; the land is wide, there is plenty of room. My mouth is full of milk, I am only as a sucking child; I am glad; have compassion on the manner in which I was brought up; let our children be clothed; et us now stand in the light of day to see our way on this earth; long [page 642] ago it was good when we first were made, I wish the same were back again. But now the law has come, and in that I wish to walk. What God has said, and our mother here (the earth), and these our brethren, let it be so” (see Alexander Morris, The Treaties with the Indians of Manitoba, the North-WetTerritories, and Kee-Wa-Tin, in the Dominion of Canada, 215-6).
disappearance of the buffalo: Buffalo became nearly extinct circa 1883. See the notes to Scott’s “Introduction, Amelia Paget, People of the Plains,” for further explanation.
The Indian Act: See Scott’s three essays on the history of Indian Affairs for a detailed discussion of this act of Parliament and its evolution.
[Canada as a State of Mind]
This is a previously unpublished address. The reference to John Murray Gibbon’s Canadian Mosaic: The Making of a Northern Nation (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1938), and the allusion to the Canadian Author’s Association-sponsored National Book Week help with the dating. This seems to be the piece referred to in The Author’s Bulletin 16: 4 (January 1940) report of a Book Week celebration at the Ottawa Chateau Laurier, Saturday, November 11, 1940: “Mrs. (Madge) Macbeth, speaking briefly, termed the reading and study of Canadian books ‘not patriotic penance but profitable work.’ Dr. Duncan Campbell Scott traced the historical growth of our literature, and stressed the importance of sound creative writing in helping to build the life of a nation” (12).
“this company”: The Canadian Author’s Association was formed in 1921 to serve Canadian writers. Problematical copyright laws were among the association’s early concerns. The first National president was John Murray Gibbon; first Secretary, B. K. Sandwell. Scott was a member of the founding Council, and Vice Chair of the Ottawa Branch (R.J. Stead, president; Madge Macbeth, secretary).
“this week”: The first Canadian Author’s Week (later Canadian Book Week) was November 19-26, 1921; the promotional week lasted until 1957. [page 643]
I remember standing”: Scott was in Moose Factory in the summer of 1905, one stop of many as he negotiated the James Bay Treaty (Treaty Nine) with the Cree and Ojibway of Northern Ontario.
Clarence A. Gagnon: Recollection and Record
Illustrated with four of Gagnon’s paintings, this article appeared in Maritime Art 3:1 (October-November 1942): 5-8. It was reprinted in Clarence A. Gagnon 1881-1942: Memorial Exhibition (Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada, 1942), along with a memoir in French by Jean-Marie Gauvreau. “I have just finished a short article for an Art Mag. On my friend Clarence Gagnon the artist who died last winter. I was writing about his illustrations to ‘Maria Chapdelaine’ and I remembered that you made a reference to ‘In the Village of Viger’ in that connection.” (Scott to A.J.M. Smith, 19 August, 1942). Lucile Gagnon, with whom Scott continued to correspond after her husband’s death, wrote on 27 October, 1942: “I was very pleased to get your copy of ‘Art’ and I like very much your article on Clarence, in fact it is the best thing written about him. Your sympathetic understanding of his personality touched me deeply. The literary part of your article and the construction of it is excellent…” In an exchange about whether Gagnon’s essays should be published, Scott thinks not: “I am convinced these extremists in modern art and the dealers and critics have already lost the fifth and I don’t like to think of an individual artist like Clarence taking part in a fight against shadows. As I have said before his true answer to all this nonsense lies in his own beautiful work, so free of all pretense [&] dishonesty” (26 March, 1943), Scott wrote to the other artist (22 February, 1946) in a similar vein, saying “I have avoided anything that might be controversial, or critical of modern art because I felt that it did not belong.”
Clarence Gagnon (1881-1942) studied art in Montreal and later in Paris under Jean-Paul Laurens. The famous colour prints for Maria Chapdelaine which Scott mentions depict scenes of rural Quebec, ranging from spring plowing and winter sleigh rides to hog-butchering and fireside storytelling in an exuberant palette of colours including cobalt, viridian, and cadmium red, yellow and orange. [page 644] Gagnon’s work is represented in the Art Gallery of Ontario, the National Gallery, and several international collections.
Etching in volves the use of sharp instruments to incise a design onto a metal plate. This plate is coated in an acid-resistant substance called the ‘ground.’ The areas not covered by the ground are eroded by exposure to an acid bath. Etching are made by roling the surface of the plate with ink or paint, filling the incisions with ink. After wiping the ground clean, the artist applies a piece of paper to the plate, and places the plate and paper in a press. After the etching is ‘pulled’ or removed from the press, incised lines will appear black; the area covered by the ground, white.
Tom Thomson (1877-1917) was a noted Canadian painter, associated with the Group of Seven. Thomson’s oil portraits of the Canadian landscape were often painted from life in Algonquin Park, and are rendered with vigorous brushstrokes in natural colours. Many of Thomson’s paintings are now housed in the McMichael Collection in Kleinburg, Ontario, while others may be viewed in the National Gallery. As fellow painter A. Y. Jackson commented, Thomson’s accidental death by drowning in a quiet lake seems mysterious considering Thomson’s considerable experience as a canoeist.
Le Grand Silence Blanc: Scott refers to the novel by Louis Frédéric Rougquette (1884-1926), Le grand silence blanc: roman vécu d’Alaska, also illustrated by Gagnon, and published by Mornay in Paris in 1928.
Maria Chapdelaine: The novel by Louis Hémon, published in Paris by Éditons Mornay in 1933.
the Wembley Exhibition: Gagnon’s work was displayed, along with paintings by Tom Thomson and other Canadian artists, in the Canadian Section of Fine Arts, British Empire Exhibition, in Wembley, England, in 1924 and 1925.
Vermeer: Johannes Reyniersz Vermeer (1632-1675), a dutch painter in oils. Vermeer’s canvases reflect a wide variety of subjects, from still-lifes to genre paintings. Vermeer’s oeuvre is comparatively small for an artist of this period, but he is well known for his skillful observation and depiction of light; his innovative technique of layering of paint and glazes to achieve a realistic, almost tactile texture in the objects and fabrics portrayed; and his sensitive portrayal of everyday moments, such as a milkmaid pouring milk, or a woman writing a letter.
Artists’ colours after the war: In a 1942 lecture at the National Gallery of Canada, Jean-Marie Gauvreau mentions that Gagnon began to mix his own paints after he found on his return to Canada in 1914 that his earlier canvases―painted with commercially manufactured oil paints―had changed colour and cracked.
This article was published in The Educational Record 59:4 (October-December 1943): 221-5. W.P. Percival, editor of the Record, wrote on 2 February, 1946 asking Scott to revise his article because “It is now proposed to put these articles into more permanent form.” Scott wrote “not answered” on the letter. A year later, (17 February, 1947), still working towards the volume that became Leading Canadian Poets (Toronto: Ryerson, 1948), Percival wrote (maiking no mention of revision) asking for a photograph of Lampman. Whether by Scott or Percival, a very few changes were made to the essay for Leading Canadian Poets. Scott’s memoir originally included a short bibliography of Lampman’s published collections of poetry which has been omitted from the present text.
the Literary Institute: A debating society associated with Trinity College, University of Toronto, which exists to the present day.
Rouge et Noire: The name of a student-run journal at Trinity College, published from 1880 to 1887. From 1880 to 1890, Lampman was a frequent contributor of both prose and poetry to Rouge et Noir and its successor, the university-funded Trinity University Review (1888-1973).
Bytown: Bytown, founded in 1826, became the city of Ottawa in 1855.
“poetry has seized and enveloped…”: See Scott’s Introduction to Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth.
“to have written…”: See Scott’s Introduction to Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth.
“A Sunset at les Eboulements”: This poem appears on page 122 of Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth (Toronto: Musson, 1925).
“Between the Rapids”: This poem may be found on page 40 of Lampman’s Among the Millet and Other Poems (Ottawa: J. Durie & Son, 1888). [page 646]
Brown: Edward Killoran Brown (1905-1951), was a Canadian literary critic. Brown, who taught at the University of Toronto, Manitoba, Cornell, and Chicago, was a correspondent of Scott’s and a long-time friend who provided him with both encouragement and thoughtful criticism. Brown edited the Selected Poems of Duncan Campbell Scott (Toronto: Ryerson, 1951). His essays on Canadian literature, and his major work, On Canadian Poetry (Toronto: Ryerson, 1943), helped establish both Scott and Lampman as canonical Canadian poets.
Foreword, Archibald Lampman, At the Long Sault and Other New Poems. Foreword by Duncan Campbell Scott; Introduction by E.K. Brown
This volume was published in Toronto by Ryerson in 1943.
Lyrics of Earth; Alcyone; Among the Millet; Poems: See Scott’s Introduction to Lyrics of Earth and his article. “Who’s Who in Canadian Literature: Archibald Lampman,” for publication information pertaining to these volumes.
Mrs. T.R. Loftus MacInnes: Archibald Lampman’s daughter Natalie. Natalie’s husband, T. R. Loftus McInnes, was instrumental in identifying Katharine Waddell as the woman addressed in “A Portrait in Six Sonnets.” “A Portrait” appears on pages 43-5, following immediately on another sonnet series known as “The Growth of Love,” (37-42), written for Lampman’s wife Maud Plater. See also Lampann’s Kate: Late Love Poems of Archibald Lampman. Margaret Coulby Whitridge, ed. And introd., (Ottawa: Borealis, 1975).
Copeland and Day: Boston-based publishers of Scott’s The Magic house and Other Poems (1893), In the Village of Viger (1896), and Labor and the Angel (1898). Lampman’s Lyrics of Earth was also originally published by Copeland and Day in 1895. (Scott’s Introduction to Lyrics of Earth was written forth e1925 Musson edition). Lampman seems to have had a troubled relationship with this publishing house. See, for instance, Lampman’s letters of 7 March 1896 (Lynn 166-7) and 25 June 1896 (Lynn 173) to E.W. Thomson, who complain of the publisher’s sluggish handling of corrected profs and correspondence. [page 647]
Sturge Moore: Thomas Sturge Moore (1870-1944), English poet, critic, and wood engraver. Scott’s paraphrase of Moore (“turning leaves in some book that Death forbade him to write”) remains unidentified.
Introduction, Mildred Valley Thornton, Indian Lives and Legends
On January 26, 1944, Mildred Thornton wrote to Scott about the introduction he had written for her book. “It is perfect in every aspect,” she says, “even to the rather surprising conclusion regarding my own portrait…” No one else could have possibly spoken with such authority, or so well,” she goes on. Whether the publisher did not agree or the Introduction could not be fit into the book, Indian Lives and Legends appeared without it. Perhaps there is another reason. Scott’s assertion that Mrs. Thornton’s book “might be regarded as a discursive and detailed treatment” of his statement regarding the success of assimilation policy, is not borne out by the text, which is quite elegiac. Or perhaps the Introduction was simply lost sight of in the long gap between the writing and publication of the book, which was printed in Vancouver by Mitchell in 1966.
“Once I wrote…”: Scott refers to the closing passage of his 1931 paper, “The Administration of Indian Affairs in Canada.” Here, Scott suggests that “the Government will in time reach the end of its responsibility as the Indians progress into civilization and finally disappear as a separate and distinct people, not by race extinction but by gradual assimilation.”
Mildred valley Thornton (1896-1967): According to her own introduction to the 1966 edition of Indian Lives and Legends, Thornton began painting Indian portraits after seeing a Native encampment at the Regina fairgrounds. She subsequently painted Native peoples from the Youkon, the Kootenays, and the West Coast of Vancouver Island, often taking her small twin boys along with her on her trips. The portrains in Indian Lives and Legends are, as Scott hints, moments in time: Chief George of the Squamish Tribe is painted with a derby hat and a modern pipe, whereas Tsimshian Chief Billy Williams is portrayed in an ermine-trimmed mask and robe. [page 648]
Review of Alfred Noyes, ed. The Golden Book of Catholic Poetry
Scott’s review appeared in Queen’s Quarterly 53:3 (Autumn 1946): 402-3. “Noyes’ Anthology is in the house but it seems a mis-title; it is a collection of Poems written by Catholics and an addition of non-Catholics; there is some very fine verse in the book including my ‘Compline,” which Stands up well with selections from Shakespeare, Tennyson and others but hen they also belong to the golden Age” (Scott to E.K Brown, 18 June, 1946; McDougall 168). Scott is joking about a request from Guy Sylvestre for “souvenirs” of “the Golden Age of Canadian Poetry” (McDougall 151). No Rupert Brooke-style legend built up around Noyes’ visit to the Scotts, perhaps because Noyes lacked charisma. This is suggested in a letter of Scott’s to Dorothea Aylen ( 7 October, 1942): “As you know we endured the Noyes’ for tow nights and my friend Clarke came from Queen’s and stayed one night. Elise finds him rather heavy but I rather like a weight to lift.” Scott is favourably mentioned in Noyes’ autobiography, Two Worlds for Memory (London, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1953). The Golden Book of Catholic Poetry, as Scott observes, contains poems written by ten Catholic nuns; poems by well-known Catholic men, such as Joseph Campbell and Saint Sir Thomas More; and “Tributary Poems by Non-Catholics,” the section in which Scott’s “Compline,” Henry Adams’ prayer to the Virgin of Chartres,” and Sidney Lanier’s “A Ballad of Trees and the Master” appear. The collection, which draws on poems from the medieval period to the anthology’s year of publication, was printed in New York by J.B. Lipincott Company in 1946 and in Toronto by Longmans, Green in the same year.
Alfred Noyes (1880-1958): The prolific English poet remembered mainly for his dramatic poem, “The Highwayman.” Poems titled “The Messenger,” “Under the Pyrenees,” and seven others (Assisi,” “Creation,” “The Double Fortress,” “You That Sing in the Blackthorn,” “Old Man Mountain,” “Messages,” and “The Strong City,”) are included in the collection. From Noyes’ quotation of Matthew Arnold in his Preface and his selection of Arnold’s poem “Jacopone da Todi,” he seems to share with Scott a respect for Arnold’s poetry, taste and methods of literary criticism. Whatever Scott’s oopinion of Noyes might have been, Noyes evidently [page 649] respected Scott’s work. Noyes’ study on “the signs of approaching disaster to our civilization” (15), The Edge of the Abyss (NY: E.P. Dutton, 1942) is dedicated to Scott, whom Noyes terms “first of Canadian poets in whom the great tradition is reconciled with all that is best of our own day.”
As an anthologist, Noyes exercises a brutal editorial pen: he regularizes spelling, changes or invents titles for certain poems, and truncates poems abruptly, or presents only a few stanzas. The brutality extends to the presentation of his own poetry. Further, he lists no publication information regarding his poems in his haphazard list of acknowledgements. Many of his poems were first published in The Times [London], Punch, and Blackwoods’s Magazine. “Creation” appears in Collected Poems, Vol. II (London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1920). “The Strong Cit” and “Messages” are excerpts from a longer narrative poem entitled “The Last Voyage,” from the volume The Last Voyage, the third in a series called The Torch Bearers (London: Blackwood, 1930). “You That Sing in the Blackthorn” is Noyes’ alternate title (taken from the first line) of the poem. “Dedication to M. A.N.” “Assisi” was originally titled “At Assisi.” “The Double Fortress” is reprinted with the same title in the later Collected Poems in One Volume (London: John Murray, 1950), as are “The Messenger” and “Old Man Mountain.”
Francis Thompson (1859-1907): An English poet. His poems, ‘Daisy,” “The Kingdom of God,” Ode to the Setting Sun,” first appeared in Poems (1893). “The Hound of Heaven” is reprinted from The Hound of Heaven (London: Burns & Oates, 1907).
Alice Meynell (1849-1922): An English poet. Her husband, Wilfrid Meynell, served as editor of the Catholic paper, Merry England. Her earliest poem included in this collection appears to be “The Young Neophyte,” published in Preludes (H.S. King, 1875) under the name A.C. Thompson. “Thoughts in Separation,” appears in the volume Poems (London: Bodley Head, 1896). “The Shepherdess,” and “‘I Am the Way,’” appear in Meynell’s Later Poems (London: Bodley Head, 1902), although “‘I am the Way’” was previously privately printed in Other Poems (1896). “Christ in the Universe,” Originally appeared in Collected Poems (London: Burns&Oates, 1913). Finally, the poem, “To W.M. Thoughts at Evening” does not seem to have been published prior to its inclusion in Noyes’ volume. [page 650]
Sidney Lanier (1842-1881): The American poet, Sidney Lanier’s “A Ballad of Trees and the Master” was originally printed in the Baltimore Independent 32:1 (December 23, 1880).
Gerard Manley Hopkins (1844-1889): His poems “Rosa Mystica,” “The Starlight Night,” and “Heaven-Haven” are printed here. “Rosa Mystica” was first printed in the Irish Monthly 26.299 (May 1898): 234-5. “The Starlight Night,” appeared in Alfrend Henry Miles’ The Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century (London: Routledge, 1905-7).
Christina Rossetti: (1830-1894): Noyes explains in the Preface that he has included Christina Rossetti’is poem “Passing Away,” and works by Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his athology because,” racially, and in other respects, they had Catholicism in their blood, though exiled from it by the political views of their father” (xv). The poem originally appeared in Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market, and Other Poems (Cambridge: Macmillan, 1862).
Digby Mackworth Dolben (1848-1867): An English poet who converted to Catholicism and became a monk in the order of St. Benedict. His poems “The Shrine,” “He Would Have His Lady Sing,” “A Prayer,” “The April of the Ages [originally untitled],” “Flowers for the Altar,” “Strange, All-absorbing Love,’” “[A Thought] After Reading Homer,” and “[In] The Garden” were not published during Dolben’s lifetime. The poems are reprinted―with certain alterations to the original titles, as shown― from The Poems of Digby Mackworth Dolben , edited with a Memoir by Robert Bridges (Oxford: Henry Frowde, 1911).
Richard Crashaw (1612? 1649) was an English poet and Anglican clergyman who converted to Cahtolicism. Noyes modernizes the titles and regularizes the spelling of each of Crashaw’s poems. “Wishes for the Supposed Mistress,” originallyappeared as “Wishes. To his (supposed) Mistress” in The Delights of the Muses. Or, Other Poems written on severall occasions (London: Printed by T.W. for H. Moseley, 1646). “A Song of Divine Love,” titled simply “A Song,” appears in Carmen Deo Nostro, Te Decet Hymnus Sacred Poems, Collected, Corrected, Augmented…(Paris: Peter Targa, 1652), as does “The Flaming Heart upon the Book and Pcture of the seraphicall saint Teresa, (As she is usually expressed with a Serphim biside her.)” “A Hymn Sung as by the Shepherds,” is an excerpt (it begins with the sixth stanza)from “A Hymne of the Nativity, sung by the Shepheards,” published in Steps to the Temple. Scared Poems, With [page 651] other Delights of the Muses. (London: Printed by T.W. for Humphrey Moseley, 1646.) “Christ Crucified” is Noyes’ title for Crashaw’s poem “Upon the Bleeding Crucifix,” (from Sacred Poems) and only the third and fourth stanzas of this nine stanza poem are presented.
G.K. Chesterton (1874- 1936): Gilbert Keith Chesterton, a prolific English writer, is best known for his eclectic essays and his Father Brow detective stories. His poem “Wine and Water” (a comparison of the Flood and Prohibition as similarly disastrous instances of the wrath of God) seems a strange addition to a Catholic anthology―as Scott notes, it is a “popular pagan poem.”
This essay was published in The Circle of Affection (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1947). “Wayfarers” was assembled from some of the pieces published in the Ottawa Journal “Literature and Life” column that Scott wrote in 1937, and included “Walter Savage Landor,” published in The Message (1922), 18-20, and an unpublished essay on the Brontës for which notes can be fond in the Scott/ Aylen papers. The first paragraph has been added to help introduce the series of travel pieces, and as one of the bookends that hold the series in place―the article concludes as Scott’s “pilgrims” end “their journey.” The two wanderers are Scott and his second wife, Elise Aylen.
The first portion of the text follows Scott’s first column from the “Literature and Life” series, but makes the following omissions, indicated by square brackets:
“…glories of Crome, Cotman [and the moderns]? [Our business is not with painters, but a memory of the Norwich Gallery is insistent, a treasury of typical works, from Crome to Arnesby Brown; and this reference enables me to say that we have as fine examples of these two painters in our National Gallery].”
“…left the herd long since. [Scott omits a long passage here beginning “I do not wish to recall Cowper as a subject for commiseration …” and ending with the citation of a stanza from Cowper’s poem, “The Diverting History of John Gilpin,”] “It is a far journey…” [page 652]
The passage “When writing those words…. A glory in memory ‘far beyond this world’” has been added to the “Wayfarers” version.
The Earthly Paradise: The lines quoted by Scott derive from the prologue to “The Proud King,” entitled “April,” in The Earthly Paradise by William Morris (1834-1896). The asterisks indicate the omission of the following lines: “That slender rods of columns do upbear / Over the mister doors, and imagery / Of kings, and flowers no summer field doth see, / Wrought on those gables.― Yea, I heard withal…”(308) The Earthly Paradise is singularly apposite to Scott’s subject. Its premise is that a group of mariners, having heard of an Earthly Paradise, wander in search of it for many years, before coming to “some Western land, of which they had never before heard” (3).
Robert Herrick: See “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [III. English Writers in Italy / Robert Herrick].”
the Commonwealth and the Puritan regime: Puritanism began in the sixteenth century as a push for reforms within the Anglican church, but soon devolved into separate, identifiable factions: the church, the Presbyterians, who advocated central church government, and the Congregationsalists, who advocated central church government, and the Congregationalists, who stressed the primacy of individual parish needs. Scott’s reference to “the Commonwealth” probably refers to the English republican period of 1649 to 1653, when the Puritans obtained their greatest prominence, following the English civil war of 1642 to 1648. The fledgling state of New England to which many Puritans emigrated, was also known as the “Holy Common wealth.” After Charles II’s restoration to the throne, Puritans became known as “non-conformists,” and suffered political ostracism.
Melville: Scott’s hint that this figure is of Gorge IV’s era (1762-1830) suggests that the Melville in question is Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville (1742- 1811), who served as a member of Parliament, home secretary, and secretary f war during the Napoleonic Wars.
Covenanters: Scottish Presbyterians bound by oath to defend their religion. The Covenanters’ movement began in 1557, persisted through the troubled reign of Charles O, Cromwell’s seizure of power, and Charles II’s restoration, ending in 1688 with the restoration of the Presbyterian Church in Scotland. [page 653]
“The oldest man that ever wore gray hairs”: Scott quotes line 56 of Wordsworth’s 1807 poem, “Resolution and Independence,” in which “a Traveller, then upon the moor” meets and ancient man who has gone to gather leeches.
the Metrical Version: Scott refers to the metrical version of the Psalms set by Nahum Tate (1652-1715) in 1696.
“ashlar”: Large squared stones.
Robert Louis Stevenson, and Swanston: Swanston is the Pentland Hills cottage leased by Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson and his family from 1867 to 1874. As Scott notes, it was “the home of Jon Todd, the roaring shepherd, and Robert the gardener.” These two characters appear in Steven’s autobiographical essays, “An Old Scots Gardener” (1871; originally published in the Edinburgh University Magazine) and “Pastoral” in the 1894 Memories and Portraits (The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson. Vol. IX London: Cassell, 1907). In citing these characters, Scott evokes a further literary allusion, for Stevesnon compares Robert Young to the crusty gardener Andrew Fairservice, of Sir Walter Scott’s novel, Rob Roy. The phrase “the rose among roots” refers to Robert Young’s strange aversion to most flowers: “His preference for the more useful growths was such that cabbages were found invading the flower-plots, and an outpost of savoys was once discovered in the centre of the lawn” (56). Robert, a “worthy representative” (51) of the old Covernanters and well-read in the Bible (unlike the man Scott encountered), was also, as Stevenson put it, “lowly and a peacemaker and a servant of God” (59). Stevenson’s first meeting with John Todd began with the angry shepherd shouting at him ‘“cwary oot amang the sheep’” (62); in later meetings he grew to appreciate Todd’s rough eloquence.
John of Gaunt (1340-1399), the wealthy and politically influential son of Edward III, was in turn Duke of Lancaster, Duke of Aquitaine, and claimant to the throne of Castile. In literary circles, he is best remembered as the patron of English poet Geoffrey Chaucer.
Mrs. Gaskell’s description of Keighley: Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (1810-1865), the English novelist remembered as the author of North and South (1855) and a controversial biography of Charlotte Brontë. Scott borrows Gaskell’s description from the opening chapter of The Life of Charlotte Brontë (1857), where she writes: “yet the aspect of Keighley promises well for future stateliness, if not picturesqueness” (2). The steep road to Haworth, as Gaskell describes it,[page 654] is paved with flagstones” placed end-ways, in order to gie a better hold to the horses’ feet; and, even with this help, they seem to be in constant danger of slipping backwards” (3); Scott affirms that the road is “still steep and stony but a motor easily conquers it.” Scott also cites Gaskell’s description of the “small old-fashioned window panes” of Haworth Parsonage (4), although Gaskell relates that its roof is “heavily rooted with flags” (4) rather than “high-pitched,” as Scott observes.
“mournful acquiescence”: See Scott’s “The Height of Land,” in which “Potan the wise /Declares the ills of life / And Chees-que-ne-ne makes a mournful sound / of acquiescence.”
Emily Brontë (1818-1848): Identifications of fragments quoted by Scott are below. Page references refer to The Poems of Emily Jane Brontë and Anne Brontë (London: Shakepeare Head Press, 1989). The quatrain, “Wildly rushed the mountain-spring / From its source of fern and ling; / How invincible its roar, Had its waters worn the shore” was written in February 1838 (57). The excerpt, “I’ll walk where my own nature would be leading: / It vexes me to choose another guide” represents lines 13-4 of her “stanzas” (180), though Scott substitutes a semicolon for the colon after “leading.” The verses, “And deepening still the dream-like charm / Wild moor-sheep feeding everywhere” are lines 35 and 36, written December 4, 1838 poem, “How still, how happy!...” (76). The nine lines beginning, “Why ask to know what date, what clime? / There dwelt our own humanity…” were written May 13, 1843. Scott omits 14 lines of the poem, between the words “misery” and “Our corn was threshed…” and omission perhaps suggested by the long dash after “misery,” which does not appear in the poem.
“In 1839, I note, “Emily does the baking and attends to the kitchen’”: This excerpt, reprinted in Elizabeth Gaskell’s Chapter VIII, comes from Charlotte’s letter of 21 December 1839 to her friend Ellen Nussey. Charlotte writes: “I manage the ironing and keeps the rooms clean―Emily does the baking and attends to the Kitchen―We are such odd animals that we prefer this mde of contrivance to having a new face among us” (206). See The Letters of Charlotte Brontë, with a selection of letters by family and friends. Vol.I 1829-1847. Margaret Smith, ed. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1995). Anne Brontë’s diary paper of 30 July 1841, “We are now all separate and [page 655] not likely to meet again for many a weary week, but we are none of us ill that I know of an all are doing something for our livelihood except Emily, who, however, is as busy as any of us, and in reality earns her food and rainment as much as we do” may be found on page 264 of the same volume. Shirt-making, not sheet-making, as Scott suggests, is the activity described in Charlotte’s letter of c. 29 July 1844 to Ellen Nussey, in which Charlotte writes: “As you conjecture Emily and I set to shirt-making the very day after you left and we have stuck to it pretty closely ever since―” (361). Emily writes in her diary paper of c. 31 July 1845, “Anne and I should have picked the black-currents if it had been fine and sunshiny” (408). The summary of Emily, “Full of ruth for others, on herself she had no mercy,” is quoted in Elizabth Gaskell’s Cahpter XVI. Charlotte’s statement, “It is only deep amongst the ridges of the moors….” Comes from “Currer Bell’s introduction to the poems of Ellis Bell [Emily’s pseudonym] in Poems by Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell (London: Aylott and Jones, 1846). The full text reads: “Long low moors, dark with heath, shut in little valleys, where a stream waters, here and there, a fringe of stunted cops. Mills and scattered cottages chase romance from these valleys; it is only higher up, deep in amongst the ridges of the moors, that Imagination can find rest for the sole of her foot: and even if she finds it there, she must be a solitude-lovign raven―no gentle dove.” Scott’s reference to “strange fictions that had no endings” is to the tales of Gondal, an imaginary land, invented by the Brontës. Glimpses of Gondalian history are visible in many of Emily’s poems.
Beauty “whose action is no stronger than a flower”: Scott quotes from the opening quatrain of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 65:
Since brass, nor stone, nor earth, nor boundless sea,
But sad mortality o’er-sways their power
How with this rage shall beauty hold a plea,
Whose action is no stronger than a flower?
Emily Dickinson’s 1870 refusal, I don not cross my father’s ground to any house or town”: Dickinson (1830-1886) was a legendarily reclusive and innovative American poet. Most of her poetry was published posthumously. Scott’s comparision of Emily Dickinson to Emily Brontë is appropriate; as he mentions, Brontë’s “Last Lines,” was read by Col. Thomas Wentworth Higginson at Dickinson’s funeral. Scott may be referring to a memoir entitled “My Per[page 656]sonal Acquaintance with Emily Dickinson” by Clara Newman Turner, niece of Emily Dickinson, who describes both the funeral (though she did not attend it) and the refusal cited above. See Richard B. Sweall’s The Life of Emily Dickinson, Vol. I (London: faber and Faber, 1974), 271.
Keats’ modest appraisal, “I think I shall be among the English Poets after my death” is written in a letter to his brother George of 29 October 1818, in response to a vitriolic article on his verse published in The Quarterly Review. See Life and Writings of John Keats. William Michael Rossetti, ed. (London: Walter Scott, 1887), 95.
Sir Thomas Browne’s words, “the iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth her poppy, and dealswith the memory of Men without distinction to merit of perpetuity” occur in Chapter V of Urne Buriall. See The Works of Sir Thomas Browne, Vol. III (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1907), 139. For more information on Browne, see Scott’s “Literature and Life: A Booklovers Corner [IV. George Borrow / Sir Thomas Browne].”
St. Peter Manscroft: The fifteenth-century east window of this c. 1430 church, which Scott admired, still remains.
Gibbon :See Scott’s “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [III. English Writers in Italy / Robert Herick].”
Italy “infamous when she abandoned freedom and was dragged to tragedy and national disgrace’: Scott alludes here to Italy’s period as a Fascist dictatorship (1933-43) under Benito Mussolini (1883-1943).
Sir Rennal Rodd: James Rennell Rodd, first Baron Rennell (1858-1941), had a lengthy diplomatic career which brought him to Rome several times in 1879, 1880, 1891, and 1891-2; from 1902 to 1905 he worked there as as first secretary; and served from 1908 to 1919 at the British Embassy. Rodd’s literary career is represented by poems such as Ballads of the Fleet (1897) and memoirs including Social and Diplomatic Memories (1922-5).
Severn: Joseph Severn (1793-1879), was an English landscape artist and portraitist. Severn served as consul in Rome from 1861 to 1872, and befriended Keats in his last illness.
article by Flight Lieut. S. J. Webb in The Times Literary Supplement: The article which Scott quotes here appeared on Saturday, September 30, 1944, in The Times Literary Supplement, 2:226. The relics of Keats smuggled by the pries include a lock of the poet’s hair[page 657] and Severn’s deathbed portrait, as well as several manuscript poems and first editions.
William MacLennan: A Canadian writer. “The Certosa” from “At William MacLennan’s Grave,” was first published in Lundy’s Lane and Other Poems (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1916). In The Poems of Duncan Campbell Scott (1926), Scott simplifies the spacing of the poem as it appeared in Lundy’s Lane. The relevant parts of the Lundy’s Lane version are as follows, showing Scott’s casual conflation of his own lines:
Florence dreameth afar;
Memories of foray and war,
The Certosa crowns with a cold
Cloud of snow and gold
The olive hill.
What has he now for the streams
Born sweet and deep with dreams
From the cedar meres?
Only the Arno’s flow,
Turbid, and weary, and slow
With wrath and tears?
What has he now for the song
Of the boatmen, joyous and long,
Where the rapids shine?
Only the sound of toil,
Where the peasants press the soil
For the oil and wine.
This illustrates the need for suspicion of Scott’s quoting. He plays free with his own words―or else his publishers did and he did not correct them.
Arnold’s prose tribute to Clough, and “Thyrsis”: See notes to Scott’s “Introduction, Archibald Lampman, Lyrics of Earth, Sonnets and Ballads.” The aphorism, “The key of our life, that passes all wards, opens all locks, [I]s not I will, I must, ―I must,― and I do it,” is taken from Clough’s “Amours de Voyage,” lines 14-5 of section VIII, “Claude to Eustace”; see Poems of Arthur Hugh Clough (Macmillan, 1903). This epistolary long poem describes the meetings of several wayfarers abroad in Italy. [page 658]
Sir Frederick Leighton (1830-1896) was a classically-influenced English painter and sculptor, as well as the designer of Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s grave.
Browning: Scott repeats quotations from Robert Browning’s poems “By the Fireside” and “The Ring and the Book” cited in his earlier essay, “Literature and Life: A Booklover’s Corner [III. English Writers in Italy /Robert Herrick].”
Landor: See Scott’s “Walter Savage Landor,” which contains the same quotations upon which Scott relies here. Landor’s sentence in praise of Wellington, “His bugles on the Pyrenees dissolved the trance of Europe” derives from “Opinions of Caesar, Cromwell, Milton, and Buonaparte” (The Works of Walter Savage Landor, Vol. II, 457-60), 459.
“her broad and powerful fan” has ….left the residue “rich in virtue and unmingled”: These off-handed quotations originate from Shakespeare’s Troilus and Cressida, Act I, scene iii. Agamemnon’s speech is as flows:
Distinction, with a broad and powerful fan,
Puffing at all, winnows the light away;
And what hath mass or matter, by itself
Lies rich in virtue and unmingled.
[The Growth and Development of Canadian Fiction]
On February 11, 1948, Madeleine Charlebois, of the Programme Division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, wrote to Elise Scott as follows: “I am sending you attached Mr. Scott’s manuscript for the “Readers Take Over” of Nov.22nd. I am sorry for the delay in sending you this but, Professor [Philip] Child had kept it after reading it over the air.” Child introduced his reading in this way: “First may I say that I wish Duncan Campbell Scott, who is the Dean of Canadian writers, & whom all the authors regard with affection and admiration could have been here to speak in his own voice what he has written for this occasion. Since illness prevents that I think it an honour to be the voice which his words shall inhabit. Here are his words―” Scott died on December 19, 1947. Child had written to him on 9 October, 1944 in the hope of obtaining some Lampman papers for Trinity College: [page 659]
For myself, I believe that one of the greatest treasures a college can possess is a tangible memento of those distinguished men whose example can be a spur to the college generations who succeed them. Further, it seems particularly important in the teaching of literature that students should be given an opportunity to realize that a Canadian literary tradition exists, and that one of those who helped to create that tradition once invited his muse in surrounding not, after all, greatly different from their own. I do believe that manuscripts can be living symbols; they might even set fire to an imagination and set free a talent. Who knows?
Scott agreed (16 October, 1944) and prepared some Lampman presentation poems for Trinity in the next year.
Charles G.D. Roberts, Bliss Carman: See Scott’s “A Decade of Canadian Poetry.”
Gilbert Parker: Scott refers to Sir Horatio Gilbert Parker (1862-1932), author of such historical novels as The Chief Factor (1892), When Valmond Came to Pontiac (1895), and The Seats of the Mighty (1989). Parker, born in what was then known as Canada West, emigrated first to Australia, and then to England; where, in addition to his writing career, he also served as a member of the British House of Commons for eighteen years.
“editor of a Canadian Magazine”: The magazine was Massey’s Magazine which, after three volumes, merged with The Canadian Magazine. The stories were “The Mystery of the Red Deeps” Chapters I, II, III (April 1896), 232-40, Chapters IV, V, VI (May 1896), 309-15; “John Greenlaw’s Story” (July 1896), 30-4; “The Nest of Imposture” (August 1896), 102-6, (September 1986), 203-8; “Ends Rough Hewn” (October 1896), 276-82; and “The Return” (November 1896) 352-7.
[Message to the Students from Duncan Campbell Scott]
The message was part of “Duncan Scott”: a Canadian Broadcasting Corporation National School Broadcast of January 16, 1948, 9: 45-10:15 EST. The script was commissioned by Richard S. Lambert, Supervisor of Educational Broadcasts, and written by Earle Grey. There was also an accompanying pamphlet, “Young Canada Listens,” containing biographical information supplied by W.P. Percival that annoyed Scott intensely. “I am classed as a writer [page 660]of the late Victorian era,” Scott explained to Lambert on 3 December, 1947. “As a writer whose working life extends for half a century beyond the Victorian era, I object to being classified under any such term. What annoyed me most was the reference to Music in the last sentence of the first Para. My first wife was an accomplished violinist, but she never claimed to be a ‘virtuoso.’ We were married when I was thirty-two and at that time I had a fair knowledge of the Classics and had kept abreast of the Moderns and our association was on equal terms, my wife was a violinist I was a pianist. The statement that I derived from Music my first poetic inspiration was nonsense.” Besides the message, Scott recorded one of his own poem, “A Song” (“In the air there are no coral―”). The message is introduced in the script this way: “You have been hearing selections from Mr. Duncan Campbell Scott’s poems. Here now is a special message from the poet to you all [to which is added in holograph] written only a short time before his recent death.” The following item is available from CBC Archives: 2d.2s. National School Broadcasts. September 16/ 477. 2515 470916-2 on 860714-14(3): Duncan Campbell Scott reading [‘A Song’].
The paragraph beginning “There is story about this poem which will interest you,” is not part of Scot’s message. Scott wrote to R.S. Lambert on October 3, 1947, enclosing small corrections to Earle Grey’s script. “The Masefield incident is not quite correctly related ,” he says, “and I have given the facts taken from his original letter and from his Introduction to the English edition of my poems.”
“poetry, ‘the great refreshment of the human mind’”: Scott quotes the English politician Charles James Fox. See “Poetry and Progress.” [page 661]
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