by D.M.R. Bentley
Archibald Lampman: Canadian Poet of Nature,
Carl Y. Connor deduces from a comparison
of Lampman’s early poetry with "the fluent
prose of his essays and letters" of the same
period that "Lampman the prose writer somewhat
preceded Lampman the poet in the volume and character
of his earliest work" (51). Connor is referring
specifically to Lampman’s writing of the early
eighteen eighties when, as a classical scholar
and then recent graduate of Trinity College, Toronto,
he wrote copious letters to his friends1
and published several essays and poems in the
College magazine, Rouge et Noir.2
Nevertheless, Connor’s general point is a valid
one: before he published his first volume of poetry,
Among the Millet, and Other Poems, in 1888,
the bulk of Lampman’s writing consisted of essays,
letters, and—a genre only briefly considered by
Connor— "prose fairy tale[s]" (78).3
By as early as 1883, when he was beginning to
publish his work outside the pages of Rouge
et Noir, Lampman was becoming better known
for his poetry than his prose,4
but for the next twelve years at least he continued
to write essays for oral delivery or publication
and twice served as a reviewer for The Week
(Toronto). During this period he also collaborated
with his fellow members of the Ottawa group of
the Confederation poets, William Wilfred Campbell
and Duncan Campbell Scott, on At the Mermaid
Inn, a column that appeared weekly in the
Globe (Toronto) from February 1892 to July
1893. When he died at the age of thirty-seven
in 1899, Lampman left behind enough work in prose
to fill a substantial volume and to sustain Connor’s
claim that he was "a thinker on many diverse
topics, a discriminating literary critic, and
a writer…[of] taste and...style" (122, and
its obvious interest as both a mirror and a lamp
for his poetry and milieu, Lampman’s prose has
attracted the attention of several scholars besides
Connor. Shortly after the appearance of On
Canadian Poetry (1943), a study that remains
important for its elevation of Lampman and Scott
over Campbell, Bliss Carman, and Charles G.D.
Roberts in the pantheon of Confederation poetry,
E.K. Brown added further lustre to Lampman’s reputation
by editing a pair of his prose works—"Two
Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture" and "The
Character and Poetry of Keats"—for publication
in the University of Toronto Quarterly
(1944, 1946). Some ten years later Arthur S. Bourinot
edited a selection of Lampman’s Letters to
Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) (1956)
and a selection of At the Mermaid Inn (1958),
the former with a truncated version of Lampman’s
essay on "Happiness" as an appendix.
There then followed another extended period of
inactivity in Lampman editing that came to an
end only in the nationalistic ’seventies when
several editions of Lampman’s poetry, most notably
the Poems (1974) in the Literature of Canada:
Poetry and Prose in Reprint series from the University
of Toronto Press, were joined by editions of two
more essays ("The Poetry of Byron" 
and "Style" ), An Annotated
Edition (1980) of the Lampman-Thomson correspondence,
and two compilations by Barrie Davies: Archibald
Lampman: Selected Prose (1975) and At the
Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman,
Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe 1892-93
(1979). Both of Davies’ books have the merit of
making available materials to which access is
otherwise difficult or limited but, as Sue Mothersill
points out in "Archibald Lampman’s Critical
Prose: an Edition of Selected Essays" (1981),
the Selected Prose is severely marred by
"editorial inconsistencies" and "carelessness
of transcription": "there is no indication
at all as to where and how changes in the copy-text
are incorporated into the edited text. Dashes
are sometimes used...to indicate an indecipherable
word or phrase, but the reader has no way of knowing
the meaning of this symbol. As a result,...[Lampman’s]
meaning is often confused or completely lost.
…Sometimes word order is rearranged and numerous
words and even whole lines are omitted from clearly
penned manuscripts"(4-5). It is symptomatic
of the weaknesses of the Selected Prose
that, as Mothersill again points out, the version
of "Happiness" that it contains is based,
not on the text published in Harper’s New Monthly
Magazine during Lampman’s lifetime, but on
Happiness: a Preachment by Archibald Lampman
and Carrying to You the Best Wishes of the Ryerson
Press (1925), a version that omits the essay’s
concluding paragraph. It is the aim of the present
edition to make readily and reliably available
all of Lampman’s essays and reviews with the exception
of his columns in At the Mermaid Inn, which,
happily, fare better in Davies’ hands and, in
any case, lose much of their import when removed
from the context of the columns of Scott and Campbell.
essays, most of which were clearly intended for
oral delivery, tend to fall into two parts: a
general and sometimes very conceptual preamble
that ranges widely over or around the topic at
hand; and the body of the essay, which, in the
case of literary topics, relies heavily on quotations
to advance and illustrate its arguments. Since
they are conceptual in nature, the preambles to
such essays as "The Modern School of Poetry
in England" and "Poetic Interpretation"
have attracted a great deal of scholarly interest
and comment; indeed, Lampman’s account in the
opening paragraphs of his "Two Canadian Poets[:]
a Lecture" of the inspirational effect of
his first encounter with Roberts’s Orion, and
Other Poems in the spring of 1881 may well
be the most quoted and best-known passage in his
prose work, if only because Malcolm Ross cites
and discusses it at length in the Introduction
to his important anthology of Poets of the
Confederation. In Archibald Lampman,
L.R. Early not only summarizes the same passage
but also quotes and discusses aspects of the preambles
of both "The Modern School of Poetry in England"
and "Poetic Interpretation" (see 23,
26, 46). Similarly close attention is paid to
the preamble to "Happiness" in the Introduction
to the Canadian Poetry Press edition of Lampman’s
The Story of an Affinity (see xxi, xxiii).
corollary of this emphasis on the preambles to
Lampman’s essays is that many scholars have glossed
over the ensuing details of his arguments and
some editors have felt little compunction in removing
lengthy quotations and other materials from the
body of the essays. In Archibald Lampman: Selected
Prose, for example, Davies omits the lengthy
(but not the brief) indented quotations from "The
Modern School of Poetry in England" and "Poetic
Interpretation," and in editing "Two
Canadian Poets" and "The Character and
Poetry of Keats" for the University of
Toronto Quarterly, Brown "suppressed
some of the longer quotations" in the former
(406) and, in the latter, reduced the essay to
somewhat more than half its original length by
omitting "passages quoted from the poems
or the letters...[and] accounts of material happenings
in Keats’ life, based on Houghton and other early
biographers" (356). "Nothing that has
been omitted [from ‘The Character and Poetry of
Keats’] could significantly alter the bearing
of the appreciations and estimates of individual
poems of which, apart from the introduction, these
extracts principally consist," Brown assures
his readers; "[a] few words of comment, set
down in passing, on various poems which did not
arrest Lampman’s attention are the only references
to poems that have not been reproduced" (356).
While understandable on the grounds of space and
printing costs, these editing practises have given
readers of the Selected Prose and the University
of Toronto Quarterly a distorted sense of
the content and form of Lampman’s literary essays,
in effect, distilling approximations of the modern
academic article from the looser medleys of discussion
and illustration that he actually wrote.
omission of lengthy quotations and other material
obscures two other important aspects of Lampman’s
essays: their rich resonances with his own poetry
and their heavy reliance on the sorts of secondary
sources towards which Brown tactfully gestures
when he refers to "accounts of...Keats’ life,
based on Houghton and other early biographers."
Numerous examples in both categories, particularly
the second, can be found in the Editorial Notes
to the present edition, so only some representative
instances need to be given here for the purposes
"the many examples and illustrations drawn
from the poetry of Keats and Wordsworth"
that Davies "delete[s]" (2) from "Poetic
Interpretation" are the well-known opening
lines of "Resolution and Independence"
in which Wordsworth describes the transition from
a stormy night to a sunny morning:
was a roaring in the wind all night;
rain came heavily and fell in floods;
But now the sun
is rising calm and bright;
birds are singing in the distant woods;
his own sweet voice the stock-dove broods;
The jay makes answer
as the magpie chatters
And all the air is filled with pleasant
noise of waters.
things that love the sun are out of doors;
sky rejoices in the morning’s birth;
The grass is bright
with rain-drops; on the moors
hare is running races in her mirth.
argues that these lines "convey very perfectly
the poetic impression of a blithe bright morning
after a night loud with rain and storm" and
he must have had them in mind when he gave his
own impression of a similar transition in "After
Rain," one of the most successful poems in
Lyrics of Earth. There "three...days"
and nights of "rain" and "wind"
give way on the "the fourth day...at noon"
to a warm world of shining "rillet[s]"
and "Uplifted" spirits that draws "haymakers"
and nature-lovers alike from their houses:
watched the gray hawk wheel and drop,
Sole shadow on the shining world;
I saw the mountains clothed and curled,
With forest ruffling to the top;
I saw the river’s length unfurled,
Pale silver down
the fruited plain,
Grown great and
stately with the rain.
miles of shadow and soft heat,
Where field and fallow, fence and tree,
Were all one world of greenery,
I heard the robin ringing sweet,
The sparrow piping silverly,
The thrushes at
the forest’s hem;
And as I went I
sang with them.
the many differences between the stanzas of Wordsworth
and Lampman is a faintly sinister, not to say
post-Darwinian, detail—the predatory "gray
hawk"—that Lampman may have remembered from
one of the "descriptive couplets" of
Roberts’s "In the Afternoon" that he
quotes with approval in "Two Canadian Poets":
"Again the droning bees hum by; / Still-winged,
the grey hawk wheels on high."5
Presumably believing that the "longer quotation"
of which this is a part does not "slow unduly...or...obscure"
"the movement of [Lampman’s] thought"
(406), Brown allowed it to remain in his edition
of the essay, a reprieve denied to numerous other
passages, including Roberts’s sonnet "The
Sower" and Lampman’s observation that it
is "apparently a transcript in verse of François
Millet’s famous picture of the same title."
Only when all the quotations in all the essays
are intact can the complexities of Lampman’s poetic
preferences and practices become readily apparent.
Brown appears to have recognized, Lampman’s use
of many of his secondary sources, not least the
Life, Letters, and Literary Remains of John
Keats by Richard Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton)
and Keats, an influential biographical
and critical study by Sidney Colvin, was far from
complex. In a manner reminiscent of the workings
of the Coleridgean fancy (and, indeed, of Coleridge
himself in some of the less creative portions
of the Biographia Literaria), Lampman all-too-frequently
constructs his essays from materials ready-made
by other biographers and critics, contributing
little more to the project than fresh mortar and
a new site. Thus— to give just two more examples—Lampman’s
characterization of Shelley and his poetry in
"The Revolt of Islam" draws heavily
on John Addington Symonds’ Shelley, and
his presentation of Dante Gabriel Rossetti in
"The Modern School of Poetry in England"
as a man for whom "every material thing was
but the expression of something inward and spiritual"
merely reworks Walter Pater’s observation that
for Rossetti, as for his great Italian namesake,
"the spiritual and the material are fused
and blent. ... Like Dante, he knows no region
of spirit which shall not be sensuous also or
material" (5:212-13). Such borrowings and
adaptations are perhaps to be expected in essays
intended primarily as lectures, a form that permits
the unattributed use of secondary sources and
allows for the impromptu interjection of attributions.
(It is quite easy to imagine that when he delivered
"The Modern School of Poetry in England"
to the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society
in March 1885 Lampman prefaced his discussion
of Rossetti with a remark like "Of course,
what I am about to say owes much to an essay by
But Lampman’s heavy reliance on secondary
sources is more difficult to understand or excuse
in the literary essays intended for publication.
As informal as nineteenth-century criticism could
be in regard to secondary sources, it customarily
contains more acknowledgements of its debts then
the literary essays that Lampman published or
wrote for publication. The startlingly derivative
nature of "The Character and Poetry of Keats"
may partly explain its failure to find a publisher
during Lampman’s lifetime as well as Brown’s decision
to present it in severely edited form. Unfortunately,
Mothersill’s observation that it is "impossible...to
tell" whether Brown’s deletions "consist...of
Lampman’s own writing or material quoted by him"
(4) applies to large portions of the essay as
a whole unless it is read, as the Editorial Notes
in the present text attempt to make possible,
with a comprehensive awareness of "Houghton,
and other early biographers."
Lampman turns to Canadian poets and non-literary
subjects, the absence of secondary sources and
the pressure of direct experience results in essays
that are considerably more engaging and admirable
than his more derivative studies of English Romantic
and Victorian poets. The discussions of Roberts
and Cameron in "Two Canadian Poets"
are fresh and intelligent, and "Friendship,"
"College Days Among Ourselves," and
"Fishing in Rice Lake" are enlivened
by personal feeling and experience. Even "German
Patriotic Poetry" and "Gambetta,"
though heavily reliant in different ways on other
texts, are shot through with an obvious relish
for patriotism and war that prevents them from
being merely the university essays that they probably
were. (As Connor observes, "Lampman’s imagination
was fired" during his years at Trinity College
by certain aspects of militarism" .)
But without doubt Lampman’s finest essay on any
subject is "Happiness," the last piece
of prose that he published during his lifetime
and the first to be reprinted after his death.
Not only is "Happiness" a well-crafted
essay that makes creative use of sources as diverse
as the classical topos of "The Choice
of Hercules" and Matthew Arnold’s Preface
to his Last Essays on Church and Religion,
but it also treats of a subject—the habits of
thought and work that lead to enduring art and
lasting happiness—that had engaged Lampman in
a deeply personal way for many years. In several
of the essays in Rouge et Noir, happiness
is a byproduct of friendship. In "The Character
and Poetry of Keats" the "pith and kernel
of the meaning" of Endymion lies in
the lines that locate happiness in ‘"that
which becks / Our ready minds to fellowship divine,
/ A fellowship with essence"’ that permits
a glimpse of ‘"The clear religion of heaven!"’
And in "Happiness" itself the elusive
goal lies in the resolute pursuit of "a free
and characteristic activity" that permits
a "consciousness of adequate self-expression...within
the limitations imposed by the social structure."
Very often in tandem with friendship, happiness
is a theme that runs through several of Lampman’s
essays and, very clearly, constitutes a major
strand of his thinking about creative and social
is this more evident than in a letter of May 26,
1886 to May McKeggie in which he describes his
own ways of dealing with depression:
very often feel totally forlorn and impotent
in the presence of what I have planned for myself
to do. But I find that it is useless to be always
examining myself and endeavouring to calculate
one’s own strength and resources. The best way
is to go actively to work on the first thing
in the way of one’s art that lies in the road—to
forget if possible that one is trying to be
great and just endeavour to do what one has
in hand as naturally and truthfully as one can.
Life has some boons either visibly or invisibly
for everyone, and all work that is faithful
and comes from a full heart is of value. …I
think a great deal of the good work that has
been done in the world has been the outcome
simply of a spirit of blind cheerful activity
such as I describe. The great souls never knew
half the time where they were going or what
was to be the net result of it all—but they
toiled carelessly and divinely on. Let us emulate
its rejection of obsessive subjectivity, its advocacy
of "blind cheerful activity,"
its deference to "great souls" who have
"toiled carelessly and divinely on"
and, above all, in its tone of moral earnestness
this passage bears the unmistakable imprint of
Thomas Carlyle. As Lampman himself intimates through
frequent recourse to The French Revolution,
Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, and
other works in "Friendship," "Gambetta,"
and elsewhere, Carlyle preceded Arnold as a major
force in moulding his thought to the contours
of high Victorianism. It was within a Carlylean
energy field that his beliefs about happiness
and creativity took shape, that he came to understand
the ethical and humanitarian duty of the artist
to assist "[h]uman nature" in its "divine
progress" towards "what is pure and
noble and beautiful" ("The Poetry of
Byron"), and that he developed a preference
for Cameron over Roberts, Keats over Shelley,
and almost any writer over Byron, the poet whose
morbid egotism Carlyle regarded as a hinderance
to the happiness that becomes possible when the
"Precept Know thyself...[is] translated
into...Know what thou canst work at"
(1:132,153). That Lampman published his most Carlylean
essay— "Friendship"— in the very month
of Carlyle’s death—February 1881— may be taken
as a tribute to the thinker who exercised a formative
influence on his thought in the early ’eighties.
judge by the fact that references to Arnoldian
critical and social concepts such as poetry as
a "criticism of life" do not begin to
appear in Lampman’s essays until the mid-to-late
’eighties (see "The Modern School of Poetry
in England," "Style," and "Poetic
Interpretation"), he came to Arnold’s prose
later than is usually thought, and perhaps with
the encouragement of Roberts. Lampman’s correspondence
with Roberts in the months following his epiphanic
reading of Orion, and Other Poems in May
1881 has not survived, but a letter from Roberts
of September 23, 1882 indicates that Lampman has
mentioned Arnold’s poetry and offers suggestions
for further reading. "I shall only refer
to him you speak of [as] second to no living English
writer," Roberts enthuses before encouraging
Lampman to read Arnold’s "prose works, especially
Essays in Criticism": "if you
are not already familiar with them, you will find
them the richest of intellectual fruits. That
on ‘Heine’; on ‘Translating Homer’; ‘Maurice de
Guérin,’ with others, are quite incomparable.
Above all he is so tolerant, so lucid and unprejudiced,
so broad in his grasp, and so exquisite in his
expression" (Collected Letters 30).
Lampman may already have been familiar with Arnold’s
prose, if only in the General Introduction and
the Introduction to Keats in T.H. Ward’s The
English Poets: Selections, but, if he was
not, then perhaps Roberts’s advice took him to
the first series of Essays on Criticism
and, specifically, to the definition of the "grand
style" in "On Translating Homer"
and the discussion of the "interpretative
power" of poetry in "Maurice de Guérin"
that lie in the background of "Style"
and "Poetic Interpretation." In any
event, Lampman was in the audience that heard
Arnold deliver his paper on "Numbers; or,
the Majority and the Remnant" in Ottawa in
February 1884 and, as Michael Gnarowski suggests,
probably "tried to model his own activities
on those of the great English man of letters"
(27). But, while Lampman drew on Arnold conceptually
and devotes essays to some of the same poets (Shelley,
Byron, and Keats), he did not share Arnold’s admiration
for Byron or his distrust of democracy, and in
the essay on socialism that he began in the mid-nineties
he answers Culture and Anarchy with a plea
for communistic "brotherhood" rather
than liberal hierarchy. It is a pity that Lampman
did not write the "elaborate article on Matthew
Arnold" that, with Thomson’s encouragement,
he was contemplating in May 1892, for such an
article might have revealed a complex attitude
to the man whom he regarded as "the greatest
poet of his generation" (At the Mermaid
Inn 98), particularly if it had—as, unfortunately,
seems unlikely—reflected his friend’s advice to
be "spontaneous, and indifferent to what
other writers have said on th[e]...matter"
(Annotated Correspondence 41, 43).
formative or broad in his influence on Lampman’s
essays than either Carlyle or Arnold was John
Campbell Shairp, the Professor of Poetry at Oxford
from 1877 to his death in 1885. A vigorous proponent
of the "thesis that man’s spiritual nature
must be postulated in any adequate philosophy
of life" (Bayne 1282), Shairp insisted on
the moral as well as the spiritual functions of
the best poetry and judged poets from Shakespeare
to Tennyson accordingly. His analysis of "Aesthetic
literature" in "Dante Gabriel Rossetti"
probably helped to colour Lampman’s response to
that poet in "The Modern School of Poetry
in England" and his On Poetic Interpretation
of Nature, a series of essays on Wordsworth
and other poets, appears to lie in the background
of "Poetic Interpretation." Even more
influential in shaping Lampman’s conception of
the desirable characteristics and effects of poetry
was Aspects of Poetry, a collection of
Shairp’s Oxford lectures that includes an essay
on "Poetic Style in Modern English Poetry"
that seems to have provided a point of departure
for "Style" and to have contributed
also to "Poetic Interpretation." Aspects
of Poetry diminished in importance for Lampman
when he turned his attention to Keats and "Happiness"
in the early-to-mid-’nineties, but prior to that
Shairp supplemented Carlyle and then Arnold in
shaping the high Victorian moral-aesthetic that
dictates the three central concerns of his literary
essays—the relation of beauty to morality, the
relation of poetry to spiritual progress, and
the value of a poem—its likelihood to endure—as
measured by its moral and spiritual content. At
the heart of Lampman’s moral-aesthetic is the
belief, synthesized from his Victorian models
in the crucible of his Anglican upbringing and
that for a poem to be considered "good"
in every sense of the word it must be a beautiful
creation that will not depress or demoralize its
readers but, rather, cheer, inspire, and elevate
them, and, in so doing, "add to their happiness,"8
contribute to the well-being of society, and assist
human moral and spiritual progress. Little wonder
that the bulk of the "Notes" that Lampman
took from John Ruskin’s Lectures on Art
are from "Lecture 3. The Relation of Art
to Morals" (see the Appendix in the present
Lampman’s primary concern was to direct his readers
and listeners towards poems that are both aesthetically
and morally "good," he pays close attention
to matters of technique and craftsmanship but
always subordinates them to social and ethical
priorities that inevitably include— for how, his
assumptions lead him to ask, can a "bad"
poet create a "good" poem?—the character
and conduct of the writer. Keats may have succumbed,
occasionally, to the promptings of a sensuous
nature, and his infatuation with Fanny Brawne
was bad for his mental and physical health, but
on the evidence of his friends, his letters, and
his biographers he was a profoundly ethical and
humanitarian man who would have made his famous
"aphorism...complete" if he had "said
that Beauty [is] Goodness as well as Truth...for
that which is beautiful and true in th[e] lofty
sense is also good" ("The Character
and Poetry of Keats"). Byron, in contrast,
may have written a few good poems in "moods
of high and serious reflection," but in the
aggregate his work will not endure because it
is the product of a man given to selfishness and
dissipation ("The Poetry of Byron").
By the same moral-aesthetic logic as applied to
a poet’s choice of subject-matter, "The Blessed
Damozel" is an admirable product of Rossetti’s
ability to give material form to his "inward
and spiritual" moods but "Jenny,"
his meditation on the realities and implications
of prostitution, "is chiefly noteworthy as
being a representative work of the whole [Pre-Raphaelite]
school and of later literature generally, bare,
realistic, and hopeless" ("The Modern
School of Poetry in England"). Similarly,
Roberts’s Greek poems in the manner of "Milton...Tennyson...Keats
and...Arnold"—all good men and good poets—command
admiration both morally and aesthetically, but
two of his love poems, "Tout ou Rien"
and "In Notre Dame" are thoroughly "disagreeable,"
the first because it is "a declaration...[of]
boundless and pitiless egotism" and the second
because it is "an expression of brawny passion"
("Two Canadian Poets"). It is as consistent
with Lampman’s moral-aesthetic that in the preamble
to "Style" he uses human conduct as
an analogue for poetic style as it is that in
the opening paragraph of "The Modern School
of Poetry in England" he defines poetry neither
as the "Interpretation of the Invisible"
(Carlyle) nor as a "Criticism of Life"’
(Arnold) but as "‘The Transfiguration of
Life"’ (Alfred Austin), a conception that
he allies to Arnold’s definition of religion as
"Morality touched with emotion."’ The
truly good poets, in Lampman’s view, are those
whose life and work show a determination to rise
above life as it is and to point towards what
it ought to be; they are those whose moral sense
causes them to put their imaginative powers and
technical skills at the service of the ideal rather
than the real, their fellow human beings rather
aspect of Lampman’s high Victorian moral-aesthetic
that may also bear the imprint of his classical
training at school and university is his insistence
that a characteristic of the work of the best
or "most perfect" poets is the great
"variety" ("Poetic Interpretation")
or "elasticity" ("Two Canadian
Poets") of its styles and subjects. Taking
his cue in "Style" from any one (or
more) of the Victorian critics who followed Coleridge
(and, behind him, Samuel Johnson) in proclaiming
Shakespeare a universal man for his ability to
enter imaginatively into any subject, Lampman
cites passages in Henry IV, Part 2 and
Richard III as evidence of a "universal
mind" that represents "the highest development
of the common healthy human intelligence"
and a "universal style" that reflects
the absence of any "special bias of thought
and feeling." Most closely resembling Shakespeare
in universality of mind and style is the "chameleon
poet" Keats, who comes closest to being the
"perfect poet" that Milnes in fact called
him (Life 94) because "[h]e was governed
by no theory and by no usurping line of thought
and feeling. He was beyond all other men disposed
to surrender himself completely to the impression
of everything with which his brain or his senses
came into contact" ("Poetic Interpretation").
Below Shakespeare and Keats in their imaginative
and stylistic versatility are, in descending order,
Wordsworth, Arnold, Tennyson, Shelley, Coleridge...and
so on past Rossetti to the utterly monotonous
monomaniacs of the Pre-Raphaelite school—Swinburne,
a poet who has "never meditated genially
and sympathetically upon the homely things of
life," and Morris, another "morbid[ly]
unhealth[y] soul" whose poems display a "universal
monotony and want of hearty life" that "has
done nothing to help the cause of order and divine
beauty and peace" ("The Modern School
of Poetry in England"). As even these few
examples show, "variety" and "monotony"
are the stylistic manifestations of a set of binary
oppositions that Lampman applied to any poetic
canon to determine whether, in the aggregate,
its author was good (versatile: sympathetic: healthy:
humanitarian) or bad (monotonous: subjective:
morbid: socially destructive). Believing as he
did that ‘[h]uman nature...[is] half human and
half beast—but the human is the mightier part,
and the whole is ever striving to be divine"
("The Modern School of Poetry in England"),
Lampman recognized that no poet, not even Shakespeare,
was entirely perfect, but he also held onto the
hope—and herein lies the humanitarian and evolutionary
thrust of his idealism—that human "striving"
might one day in the far distant future create
a perfect world and a perfect poet.
doubt, Lampman’s preference for healthy "variety"
in his poets was partly conditioned by Arnold’s
association of monotony with morbidity in the
Preface to his Poems (1853) and elsewhere
(see Complete Prose Works 1:2-3), but it
may also have origins in the classical principle
of veriatas as practiced by Horace, Ovid,
Statius and other Roman poets. Lampman probably
knew the work of some or all of these poets directly
and his discussions of sixteenth-and seventeenth-century
literature in "Style" suggest that he
may also have known works such as Ben Jonson’s
Under-wood and John Dryden’s Sylvae
which embodied the idea, that, like a forest,
a volume of poetry should contain poems in a variety
of forms on a variety of subjects.9
And he would certainly have been aware, if only
after 1886 as a result of Roberts’s In Divers
Tones volume of that year, that in the first
stanza of the first section of In Memoriam
Tennyson expresses his admiration of "him
[Goethe] who sings / To one clear harp in divers
tones, / That men may rise on stepping-stones
/ Of their dead selves to higher things"
However he came by it, the ideal of "variety"
was critically important to Lampman, not merely
as a criterion for judging other poets, but as
a principle for assembling his own volumes of
poetry: Among, the Millet, and Other
Poems is diverse in its styles and subjects,
and Lyrics of Earth might have been similar
if Lampman and Thomson, who helped to give it
its final shape as a somewhat monotonous a cycle
of nature lyrics (see Annotated Correspondence
144), had not recognized the difficulty of interesting
a publisher in a collection of "miscellaneous
poems" (qtd. in Greig Part 2:13).11
It is a testament to Lampman’s continued commitment
to the principle of variety and all that it implies
about the poet’s mental make-up12
and humanitarian functions, that in Alcyone,
the volume that he left unpublished at his death,
his visions of "the Issue of Things that
Are" ("The City of the End of Things")
and "the Country of the Ought to Be"
("The Land of Pallas")13
are surrounded by twelve "nature sonnets
to make a variety" (Annotated Correspondence
the most striking thing about Lampman’s reviews
is that two— probably three—of them treat of books
by authors whom he knew personally. "The
Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald,"
which appeared in the June 30, 1883 number of
the Canadian Illustrated News (Montreal),
takes the reader through the Life and Times
of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald
by Joseph Edmund Collins, a mutual friend of Roberts
and Lampman who was responsible for "establish[ing]
a corresponding friendship" between the two
poets and may have "provided the copy of
Orion that so inspired Lampman" in
May 1881 (Taylor 204-05). After Collins’s death
in 1892, Lampman described him in At the Mermaid
Inn as "almost the literary father of
some of the young men who are now winning fame
among us" (40). And, as its title indicates,
"Mr. Thomson’s Old Man Savarin,"
published in the August 9, 1895 issue of The
Week, is a review of Old Man Savarin and
Other Stories by Edward William Thomson, a
friend since March, 1890, when he wrote an editorial
in the Globe suggesting to Macdonald that
he should encourage Canadian talent by appointing
Lampman to a less onerous and more remunerative
position than the one he then occupied in the
Post Office Department of the Civil Service. The
fact that Lampman’s third review—his brief notice
of C[harles] J. Parham’s Lyrical Translations
from the Languages of Oc, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese
and Provincial Dialects in The Week
for December 8, 1887—treats of a work published
privately in Ottawa suggests that Parham, too,
was a friend or acquaintance. It is thus predictable
that, to adopt the disclaimer with which "The
Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald"
begins, none of Lampman’s three reviews is "severe
and critical," and all "aim to give...readers
a general idea of a...work" judged to be
"very able and delightful."
is not beyond the bounds of possibility that the
network of friendly reviewing in which Lampman
played a minor part was in William Wilfred Campbell’s
mind when, in the April 20, 1895 issue of Saturday
Night (Toronto), he fired the first shot in
what quickly became known as "The War Among
the Poets," a cross-border skirmish that,
if nothing else, dispelled any illusions that
readers might have had about the cohesiveness
of the Canadian literary community.15
"It seems to me that amid the incessant hailing
and applauding of literary lights on both sides
of the national boundary," wrote Campbell,
"there is a great deal of insincerity and
cheap humbug that is a hundred times more injurious
to our literary development than dead silence
on the whole subject. …In a very able editorial
in one of its February issues, the New York Nation
attacked this pernicious system under the title
it has well earned, that of ‘the log-rollers.’
The Nation describes…‘log-rollers’ as a
combination of unknown but extremely ambitions
writers who band together for purposes of mutual
admiration, and carry out their compact by booming
one another in the…papers to which they have literary
access" ("American Literary Conditions"
4-5). Of course, it would be an exaggeration to
categorize Lampman’s three isolated reviews as
"log-rolling" of the systematic sort
decried by Campbell, but they are, nevertheless—and
as Lampman, at least in the first instance, frankly
admits—the products of a mutual admiration born
and of themselves, Lampman’s reviews are probably
most interesting as indicators of his broad understanding
of Canada’s history, landscape, and cultural conditions,
his fondness for humour, and his patriotism. At
various points the reviews resonate with the essays,
as, for example, in the approving quotation of
Collins’s view of Sir Alexander MacKenzie as a
politician whose "[c]ast-iron theories always
hedged him in and set bounds to his every impulse
and plan" and in the general observation
of Thomson’s "Canadian stories" that
they "give some idea of the variety of scene
which presents itself to the student of Canadian
life." To what extent, it might be wondered,
did Collins’s preference for pragmatic rather
than theoretical politicians influence Lampman’s
similar taste in poets? And could Lampman’s preference
for "variety" have stemmed in part from
a belief that this was an appropriate if not inevitable
response to the "diversity of scenery"
that he counted among the environmental factors
working to mould the "Canadian character"
and, eventually, to create a "Canadian race"
and a "Canadian literature" ("Two
Canadian Poets")? It is as much for the questions
that they raise as for the insights that they
provide into the thought and milieu of Canada’s
finest nineteenth-century poet that Lampman’s
essays and reviews will be of interest to students
and scholars of Canadian literature.
texts in the present edition are based on those
published during Lampman’s lifetime or, in the
case of essays that were not so published, on
the holograph manuscripts in the National Archives
of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario and in the Library
of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British
Columbia. The specific copy text of each essay
and review is described and, if necessary, discussed
in the headnotes that precede the annotations
in the Editorial Notes.
editorial cornerstone of the present edition is
the principle that in (re-)printing Lampman’s
essays and reviews the text as originally published
or written should be allowed to stand with as
little alteration as possible. In accordance with
the principle, Lampman’s characteristic (and often
interestingly anachronistic) spellings of such
words as "sourse," "leizure"
"sieze" and "reallities" have
been retained, as has his inconsistent use of
"British" and "American" spellings.
When grammar or sense has required the addition
of a syllable, a word, or an item of punctuation,
it has been set off in square brackets. When it
has not been possible to provide corrections in
square brackets without emending an error (of
spelling, for example) the error is noted by "[sic]".
Since Lampman’s frequent errors in reproducing
the punctuation and wording of quoted materials
are both telling and interesting, they have been
allowed to stand except in the case of terminal
punctuation and, very occasional, colons that
are logically and grammatically necessary; when
these have been added to quotations or—since Lampman
was often careless or negligent in this respect
also—to the sentences that introduce quotations,
they have also been set off in square brackets.
Only when an error of wording in a printed essay
or review is blatantly a typographical error has
it been emended (again, in square brackets). Details
of the differences between Lampman’s quotations
and their originals are given and sometimes discussed
in the annotations.
editing Lampman’s holograph manuscripts for the
present edition, the following procedures have
been adopted: hyphens have been treated as dashes
except between syllables and in compound words;
ampersands and contractions have been expanded;
and Lampman’s corrections have been accepted (and,
where significant, noted in the annotations).
When an essay has posed particular problems of
transcription, these are discussed in the headnote
in the Editorial Notes. In accordance with formal
typographical practice, underlinings have been
rendered as italics; surrounding quotation marks
have been removed from indented quotations except
when they note the beginning and end of a speech;
and the titles of newspapers, periodicals, plays,
books, and long poems published in book or pamphlet
form have been italicized, while those of articles,
short poems, and other sections of books have
been enclosed in double quotations marks. In "The
Character and Poetry of Keats" indented quotations
that include interjections by Lampman have been
run on to the preceding sentence.
provide students and scholars with a sense of
Lampman’s intellectual and stylistic shifts and
development, an attempt has been made to arrange
his essays and reviews in chronological order.
This has yielded a skeletal sequence based on
the certainties of publications, oral delivery,
and dated manuscripts:
Revolt of Islam" December 1880
"Friendship" February 1881
"College Days among Ourselves [I]"
"German Patriotic Poetry" March 1882
"College Days among Ourselves [II]"
"Fishing in Rice Lake" August 1882
"College Days among Ourselves [III]"
"College Days among Ourselves [IV]"
"The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald"
"Gambetta" July 1883
"The Modern School of Poetry in England"
"Lyrical Translations" December
"Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture"
"The Character and Poetry of Keats"
"Mr. Thomson’s Old Man Savarin"
"Happiness" July 1896
leaves four essays in limbo: "Style,"
"Poetic Interpretation," "The Poetry
of Byron," and the untitled draft on Socialism.
Since the last of these appears in a notebook
in the National Archives among poems dated from
December 28, 1895 to March 4, 1896 and other materials
of the mid-to-late nineties (see headnote), it
has been placed between "Mr. Thomson’s Old
Man Savarin" and "Happiness."
"Style" is a little more difficult to
position, but some internal evidence suggests
that it was delivered orally after 1886 and probably
between December 12, 1889 and October 6, 1892
(see headnote); it has therefore been placed between
"Lyrical Translations" and "Two
Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture." More difficult
to place are "Poetic Interpretation"
and "The Poetry of Byron." Was either
of them the paper that Lampman read to "the
assembled army of pedagogues—web-footed, English-mutilating,
tobacco-chewing barbarians from every quarter
of the country" (qtd. in Connor 61)—at a
teachers’ convention between September 1882 and
January 1883? Was either the "prose essay
for the ‘Atlantic Monthly,’ or some like publication"
that Lampman was "meditating" in the
spring of 1883 (qtd. in Connor 68)? The evidence
for placing the two essays together and later
is far from strong, but it is perhaps sufficient:
both are written in pen on the same type of paper
(see headnotes); the script of both resembles
that of "The Character and Poetry of Keats";
"The Poetry of Byron" indicates a familiarity
with Roden Noel’s 1890 Life of Byron (see
headnote); and "Poetic Interpretation"
approaches the various poets that it discusses
with some of the assumptions of "Style"
and "The Modern School of Poetry in England"
but treats of Keats in a manner that anticipates
but does not coincide with the long essay begun
in October 1892 (see the headnote to "The
Character and Poetry of Keats"). The fact
that Arnold is a point of reference in both essays,
providing the conceptual framework for "Poetic
Interpretation" and the concluding quotation
for "The Poetry of Byron," may indicate
that they were written early in 1892 when, as
observed earlier, Lampman was contemplating writing
"articles in criticism for magazines"
and "an elaborate article on Matthew Arnold"
(Annotated Correspondence 40-41).16
"The Poetry of Byron" and "Poetic
Interpretation" have thus been placed between
"Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture" and
"The Character and Poetry of Keats,"
but it should be borne in mind that this position,
like that of "Style" and "[Socialism],"
to the Introduction
Connor partly bases this view on letters that
appear to have survived only in his excerpts
from them (see Connor 205). [back]
Taking its name from the College colours (with
a gesture, very likely, towards Stendhal’s Le
Rouge et le noir), Rouge et Noir was "published
quarterly in the interests of Trinity College"
from January 1880 to December 1885, after which
it became the Trinity University Review. According
to its opening number, it was to be a forum
for "free and liberal discussion"
(5), albeit within the Church of England traditions
of the College (see also Trinity, 1852-1952
41-46). Since Lampman entered Trinity as a Foundation
Scholar in the fall of 1879, he may well have
been involved with the inception of Rouge et
Noir and certainly wrote material for it in
addition to the essays contained in the present
edition (see the headnote and annotations to
"College Days among Ourselves"). [back]
"Hans Fingerhut’s Frog Lesson" was
published in 1885 in Man, a periodical run by
Lampman’s father-in-law, Dr. Edward Playter,
but "The Fairy Fountain" was not published
until 1975 in Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose;
it is probably the "fairy tale" that
Lampman mentions having recently written in
a letter of January 29, 1885 to May McKeggie.
Since both "Hans Fingerhut’s Frog Lesson"
and "The Fairy Fountain" are Kunstmärchen—allegories
written in the manner of the German folk tale
(Volksmärchen) by several German Romantic writers—they
reflect Lampman’s interest in German literature
and, indeed, his German background (see Connor
13-17). In a letter of December 28, 1885 to
May McKeggie, Lampman states that he has recently
been given "a copy of [Johann Wolfgang
von] Goethe’s short novels and Tales"—R.D.
Boylan’s translation of Goethe’s Novels and
Tales (1854, 1878), which includes J.A. Froude’s
translation of Die Wahlverwandtschaften (Elective
"Winter Evening" and "The Life
and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald" were
published, respectively, in the February and
June 1883 issues of the Canadian Illustrated
News (Montreal), and "Fishing in Rice Lake"
in the August 10, 1882 issue of Forest and Stream.
In the chapter on Canadian "Thought and
Literature" that concludes the Life and
Times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald,
J.E. Collins predicts a "brilliant…future"
for Lampman as a poet on the basis of his "exquisite
touch" and "some lines of the very
highest merit" (496). [back]
A "grey hawk slow-wheeling" also appears
in Roberts’s "Tantramar Revisited"
(Collected Poems 79), which Lampman greatly
admired and probably quoted at length to conclude
Twice in the early ’nineties when he was entertaining
the possibility of being offered a teaching
position at Cornell University, Lampman complained
vociferously to Thomson about his lack of books
and reading: "I am so ignorant and so ill-read
that I hardly know how I could support the position
of an assistant Professor of anything. ...For
a man who has so much natural talent as I, it
is surprising how little I have read.—and now
I exceedingly regret that I have not given more
time to study," he moaned on October 4,
1891, and again on May 20, 1892: "[t]he
trouble is that I am hampered in...[writing
articles of criticism] by my lack of reading
and poverty of information. I have ideas enough,
but not enough knowledge of books to support
them’ (Annotated Correspondence 20, 40-41).
Lampman’s father, also Archibald Lampman, who
"first instructed [his son] in the art
of verse" (Poems 175), was an Anglican
minister and Trinity College was an Anglican
institution (see note 1, above). In a letter
of November 1, 1897, Lampman states that it
"depresses [him] to go to church"
and offers a bleak analysis of the appeal of
Christianity (Annotated Correspondence 194).
This is one of Arnold’s requisites for poetry
in the Preface to his Poems (1853), the other
being that its "representation" of
human feelings be "add[ed] to our knowledge"
by being "particular, precise, and firm,"
and moreover, serves to "enspirit and rejoice
the reader...[to] convey a charm, and infuse
delight" (Complete Prose Works 1:2). [back]
For the classical origins of the aesthetic of
variety and its importance for seventeenth-century
poetry see the essays of Earl Miner, William
S. Anderson, and Annabel Paterson in Neil Fraistat’s
Poems in their Place. For some nineteenth-century
Canadian manifestations of the aesthetic and
their implications, see my "Trees and Forest."
In an obituary column in At the Mermaid Inn
on October 15, 1892, Lampman praises Tennyson
for, among other things, his "perfection
and variety of phrase and cadence" and
describes In Memoriam as his "wisest and...loftiest"
poem (172). [back]
See also my Introduction to Lyrics of Earth,
In his At the Mermaid Inn column for April 2,
1892, Lampman contrasts the "businessman,"
who "spends his whole life in the pursuit
of a dream," with the "poet,"
who "attaches himself to no dream"
and "endeavours to see life simply as it
is, and to estimate everything at its true value
in relation to the universal and the infinite"
In "the last proof sheets of…[Alcyone]
corrected by Lampman" (Duncan Campbell
Scott’s note) in the Lampman Papers in the National
Archives of Canada the full titles of his dystopian
and utopian poems are "The City of the
End of things, or, The Issue of Things that
Are" and "The Land of Pallas, or,
the Country of the Ought to Be" (MG29 D59,
vol. 3, 1176 and 1209). [back]
See also Lampman’s statement on October 30,
1895 in regard to the ‘"Century of Sonnets"’
that he had assembled in the late summer of
the previous year and had since been trying
to place with an American publisher: "I
will take out ten of the descriptive sonnets
and mixed [sic] the rest in with the general
ones, so as to make up a variegated collection
of 90. …I will call it ‘Sonnets of Life and
Death"’ (Annotated Correspondence 158).
Campbell was an aggressive and paranoic personality
whose final columns in At the Mermaid Inn in
June and July 1893 included denigrating remarks
about "descriptive sonnet writers"
and "landscape painting in words"
(334, 341) that may have been aimed at his fellow
Confederation poets, particularly Roberts and
Lampman. On June 6, 1894, Lampman described
Campbell to Thomson as a "curious bird,"
adding in confidence: "I have reason to
believe that he regards me as an enemy, assisted
by numerous emissaries, who are always lying
in weight [sic] to injure his fame and literary
reputation." On May 6, 1895, after the
"War Among the Poets" had broken out,
he went further: "Campbell has actually
got it into his head…that I—I mind you—am engaged
with Roberts and Carman in an underhand intrigue
to destroy him and undermine his literary reputation.
…He harbours infinite wrath and bitterness against
me. Campbell is a monomaniac on the subject
of his reputation. His state of mind in regard
to such matters amounts absolutely to madness"
(Annotated Correspondence 122, 139). Alexandra
J. Hurst has made the documents generated by
the controversy readily available in The War
Among the Poets. [back]
"Poetic Interpretation" has been placed
after "The Poetry of Byron" in the
present edition because its distinctly critical
view of Shelley accords with that expressed
by Lampman in his At the Mermaid Inn column
for March 5, 1892 (see the headnote to "The
Revolt of Islam"). The moralistic tone
as well as the positive assessment of Shelley
in "The Poetry of Byron" align it
with "The Modern School of Poetry in England"
and "Style." [back]
Cited in the Introduction
Matthew. Complete Prose Works. Ed. R.H.
Super. 11 vols. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1960-77
Thomas Wilson. "John Campbell Shairp."
Dictionary of National Biography. 17: 1281-83.
D.M.R. Introduction. Lyrics of Earth. By
Archibald Lampman. Ed. D.M.R. Bentley. Ottawa:
Tecumseh, 1978. 1-20.
Introduction. The Story of an Affinity.
By Archibald Lampman. London: Canadian Poetry
Press, 1986. xi-xxxi.
‘"Trees and Forest’: Notes on Variety and
Unity in Nineteenth-Century Canadian Writing."
In Literary Genres/Les Genres Littéraires.
E. I.S. MacLaren and C. Potvin. Edmonton: Research
Institute for Comparative Literature, U of A,
E.K. On Canadian Poetry. 1943. Rev. ed.
1944. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1973.
Prefatory Note. In "The Character and Poetry
of Keats." By Archibald Lampman. Ed. E.K.
Brown. University of Toronto Quarterly
15 (June, 1946): 356-57.
Prefatory Note. In "Two Canadian Poets: a
Lecture by Archibald Lampman." Ed. E.K. Brown.
University of Toronto Quarterly 13 (July,
William Wilfred. "American Literary Conditions."
In The War Among the Poets: Issues of Plagiarism
and Patronage among the Confederation Poets.
Ed. Alexandra J. Hurst. London: Canadian Poetry
Press, 1994. 4-9
At the Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald
Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe
1892-93. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1979.
Thomas. Works. Centenary Edition. 30 vols.
London: Chapman and Hall, 1897. New York: AMS
J.E. Life and times of the Right Honourable
Sir John A. Macdonald, K.C.B., D.C.L., &c,
Premier of the Dominion of Canada. Toronto:
Sidney. Keats. 1887. English Men of Letters.
London: Macmillan, 1913.
Carl Y. Archibald Lampman: Canadian Poet of
Nature. Montreal: Louis Carrier, 1929.
Barrie. Introduction. In Archibald Lampman:
Selected Prose. Ed. Barrie Davies. Ottawa:
Tecumseh, 1975. 1-9.
L.R. Archibald Lampman. Twayne World Authors
Series: Canadian Literature. Boston: Twayne, 1986.
Neil, ed. Poems in their Place: the Intertextuality
and Order of Poetic Collections. Chapel Hill:
U of North Carolina P, 1986.
Michael. Introduction. Selected Poetry.
By Archibald Lampman. Ed. Michael Gnarowski. Ottawa:
Tecumseh, 1990. 1-36.
Johann Wolfgang von. Novels and Tales.
Trans. R.D. Boylan and J.A. Froude. 1854. London:
George Bell and Sons, 1878.
Peter E. "A Check List of Lampman Manuscript
Material in the Douglas Library Archives."
Douglas Library Notes 15 (Winter, 1967):
8-16 (Part 1); 16 (Autumn 1967): 12-27 (Part 2).
Lord. Life, Letters and Literary Remains of
John Keats. New York: George P. Putnam, 1848.
"Memoir" In Poetical Works. B.
John Keats. Ed. Lord Houghton. Aldine Edition
of the British Poets. London: George Bell, 1876.
Alexandra J., ed. The War Among the Poets:
Issues of Plagiarism and Patronage among the Confederation
Poets. London: Canadian Poetry Press, 1994.
John. Poetical Works. Ed. Lord Houghton.
Aldine Edition of the British Poets. London: George
Archibald. An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence
Between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson
(1890-1898). Ed. Helen Lynn. Ottawa: Tecumseh,
Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose. Ed.
Barrie Davies. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1975.
Archibald Lampman’s Letters to Edward William
Thomson (1890-1898). Ed. Arthur S. Bourinot.
Ottawa: Bourinot, 1956.
At the Mermaid Inn, Conducted by A. Lampman,
W.W. Campbell, Duncan C. Scott. Ed. Arthur
S. Bourinot, 1958.
At the Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald
Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe
1892-93. Ed. Barrie Davies. Toronto: U
of Toronto P, 1979.
"The Character and Poetry of Keats."
Ed. E.K. Brown. University of Toronto Quarterly
15 (June, 1946): 356-72
Happiness: a Preachment by Archibald Lampman
and Carrying to You the Best Wishes of the Ryerson
Press. Toronto: Ryerson, 1925.
Letters to May McKeggie. Microfilm copies. Trinity
College Archives, Toronto.
Lyrics of Earth. 1895 . Ed. D.M.R.
Bentley. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1978.
Papers. National Archives of Canada, Ottawa.
Poems. Ed. Duncan Campbell Scott. Toronto:
"The Poetry of Byron." Ed. D.M.R. Bentley.
Queen’s Quarterly 83 (Winter, 1976): 623-32
"Style." Ed. Sue Mothersill. Canadian
Poetry: Studies, Documents, Reviews 7 (Fall/Winter,
"Two Canadian Poets: a Lecture by Archibald
Lampman." Ed. E.K. Brown. University of
Toronto Quarterly 13 (July, 1944): 406-23
Richard Monckton. See Lord Houghton.
Sue. "Archibald Lampman’s Critical Prose:
an Edition of Selected Essays." M.A. thesis.
Carleton U, 1981.
Roden. Life of Lord Byron. Great Writers.
London: Walter Scott, 1890.
Walter. [Works]. Library Edition. 10 vols.
London: Macmillan, 1910.
Charles G.D. Collected Letters. Ed. Laurel
Boone. Fredericton: Goose Lane, 1989.
Malcolm. Introduction. Poets of the Confederation.
Ed. Malcolm Ross. New Canadian Library, 1. Toronto:
McClelland and Stewart, 1960.
John Campbell. Aspects of Poetry, Being Lecture
Delivered at Oxford. 1881. Freeport, N.Y:
Books for Libraries Press, 1972.
On Poetic Interpretation of Nature. Boston:
Houghton Mufflin, 1877.
John Addington. Shelley. 1878. New Ed.
English Men of Letters. London: Macmillan, 1887.
M.Brook. "Joseph Edmund Collins." Dictionary
of Canadian Biography. 12: 204-06.
Alfred, Lord. Poems. Ed. Christopher Ricks.
Longman’s Annotated English Poets. London: Longmans,
Trinity, 1852-1952. Spec.
issue of Trinity University Review
(1952): i-vi; 3-186.